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The Israeli-Jewish Collective Memory of the Israeli-Arab/Palestinian Conflict [Data]

Data from the Study Conducted by Rafi Nets-Zehngut (Teachers College, Columbia University) and Daniel Bar-Tal (Tel Aviv University), Summer 2008.

Study Conducted by Rafi Nets-Zehngut (Teachers College, Columbia University) and Daniel Bar-Tal (Tel Aviv University), Summer 2008

For additional information about the study, click here, or contact Rafi Nets-Zehngut at rafi.nets@gmail.com
 
 

1. Which of the following sentences best describes your opinion with regard to the distribution of responsibility between the Jews and Arabs (including Palestinians) for the outbreak and continuation of the Israeli-Arab conflict?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The Arabs (including the Palestinians) are primarily responsible for the outbreak of the conflict and its continuation

43.4

2

The Arabs and the Jews are more or less equally responsible

46

3

The Jews are primarily responsible

4.2

4

Do not know

6.4

Total

100

 

2. To the best of your knowledge, what was the degree of sincerity of Israeli efforts versus those of the Arabs (including the Palestinians) to achieve peace through out the conflict?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Israel was very sincere but the Arabs were not sincere

27

2

Israel was somewhat sincere and the Arabs not

30.4

3

Both parties were sincere in about an equal degree

28.2

4

The Arabs were somewhat sincere and Israel not

1.6

5

The Arabs were very sincere and Israel not

0.4

6

Do not know

12.4

Total

100

 

3. To the best of your knowledge, what was the quality of the relations between the Jews and Palestinians in Eretz-Israel (the land of Israel) in the centuries that preceded the beginning of the Zionist immigration to Eretz-Israel in the end of the 19th century?

Relations were:

No.

Possible answers

 

% choosing this answer

1

Very bad

6.6

2

Somewhat bad

16.8

3

Medium

31.2

4

Somewhat good

29.4

5

Very good

3.8

6

Do not know

12.2

Total

100

 

4. To the best of your knowledge, what portion of the entire population of Eretz-Israel consisted of Palestinians before the Jewish pioneers began arriving at the end of the 19th century?

The Palestinians were:

No.

Possible Answers

% choosing this answer

1

The exclusive inhabitants of the land

0.6

2

The vast majority

22.8

3

The majority

36.6

4

Minority

15.8

5

An insignificant minority

6.0

6

Do not know

18.2

Total

100

 

5. To the best of your knowledge, who is responsible for the violence between the Jews and Palestinians that occurred in Eretz-Israel from the end of the 19th century until the eruption of the War of Independence?

The source of responsibility for the violence is:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Only the Palestinians

20.6

2

Mostly the Palestinians

37.8

3

Quite equally both parties

23.8

4

Mostly the Jews

3.6

5

Only the Jews

1.0

6

Do not know

13.2

Total

100

 

6. According to the United Nations' division resolution of -'47, what portion of Eretz-Israel were the Palestinians supposed to get, relative to their representation in the population?

The Palestinians got according to the resolution:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

A part of the land much bigger than their representation in the population

10

2

A part of the land bigger than their representation

19.2

3

A part of the land equal to their representation

20.4

4

A part of the land smaller than their representation

19

5

A part of the land much smaller than their representation

4.8

6

Do not know

26.6

Total

100

 

7. What portion of the Palestinians wanted to initiate a war against the Jews following the UN resolution of -'47 for the establishment of Israel?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The vast majority of the Palestinians wanted to initiate a war

26.8

2

The majority

33.6

3

About half

9.8

4

A minority

10.6

5

An insignificant minority

1.4

6

Do not know

17.8

Total

100

 

8. What were the reasons for the departure of Palestinian refugees during the War of Independence?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The refugees left due to fear and calls of leaders to leave

40.8

2

The refugees left due to fear, calls of leaders and expulsion by the Jews

39.2

3

The refugees were expelled by the Jews

8

4

Do not know

12

Total

100

 

9. What portion of the Israeli-Arabs (excluding those in East Jerusalem) have planned or taken part in terrorist activities against Israel since the War of Independence until today?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Almost all Israeli-Arabs acted like this

4.8

2

Most of them acted like this

17

3

About half of them

15.6

4

A minority of them

35.8

5

An insignificant minority of them

17

6

Do not know

9.8

Total

100

 

10. What were the main reasons for the entry into Israel of Arab/Palestinian infiltrators between the end of the War of Independence and the beginning of the Sinai War in -'56?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

All of them entered with the intent to commit terrorist acts (such as murder and sabotage)

12.4

2

Most of them entered with the intent to commit terrorist acts

20.2

3

About half entered with the intent to commit terrorist acts, while half entered with economic-social aims (such as cultivation of fields and visiting relatives)

32.2

4

Most entered with economic-social aims

12.2

5

All entered with economic-social aims

2

6

Do not know

21

Total

100

 

11. Why did Israel initiate the -'56 Sinai War?

Israel attacked:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Entirely because it had no other alternatives in response to aggressive actions by the Arabs

28.6

2

Mostly because it had no other alternatives

30

3

Partly because it had no other alternatives and partly because it sought to conquer and control Egyptian territories

14.2

4

Mostly because it sought to conquer and control Egyptian territories

4.6

5

Entirely because it sought to conquer and control territories

1.6

6

Do not know

21

Total

100

 

12. What was Israel's motivation in initiating the -'67 Six Day War?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Solely as a defense measure in response to war threats by Arab countries

37.2

2

Mostly as a defense measure in response to war threats

34.6

3

Partly as a defense measure and partly because it sought to conquer and control Arab territories

12.8

4

Mostly because it sought to conquer and control Egyptian territories

1.6

5

Solely because it sought to conquer and control territories

2

6

Do not know

11.8

Total

100

 

13. Prior to the -'73 Yom Kippur War:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

There were no peace initiatives between Israel and the Arabs

17.8

2

There were peace initiatives between Israel and the Arabs, but they failed due to the Arabs

20.2

3

There were peace initiatives that failed due to both parties

26.6

4

There were peace initiatives that failed due to the Israelis

5.2

5

Do not know

30.2

Total

100

 

14. What happened in the Yom Kippur War with regard to the balance of power between Israel and the Arabs?

It became clear that Israel is:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Much stronger than the Arabs and will not incur danger in fighting them

17

2

Stronger than the Arabs

43.2

3

Equal in its power to the Arabs

5.6

4

Not as strong as the Arabs and might incur danger in fighting them

19.2

5

Weaker than the Arabs

6

6

Do not know

9

Total

100

 

15. What were Israel's aims in the '82 Lebanon War?

Israel's aims were:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Only to prevent terror attacks against it from Lebanon

20.4

2

Mainly to prevent terror attacks from Lebanon

26.4

3

Partly to prevent terror attacks; and partly to build a new regional order in Lebanon

32

4

Mainly to build a new regional order in Lebanon

6

5

Only to build a new regional order in Lebanon

2

6

Do not know

13.2

Total

100

 

16. What were the reasons for establishing settlements in the West Bank and Gaza?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

For security purposes only, in order to prevent attacks against Israel from these territories

6.6

2

Mainly for security purposes

9.6

3

Quite equally for security purposes and ideological reasons

44

4

Mainly due to ideological reasons

23.2

5

Only due to ideological reasons

10.4

6

Do not know

6.2

Total

100

 

17. What have been the main reasons for violence against Israel by the Palestinian terrorist organizations?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Only the inherently violent nature of the Palestinians

23.8

2

Primarily because of their violent nature

23.8

3

Because of their violent nature of and Israel's behavior during the conflict

31.6

4

Primarily because of Israel's behavior

6.2

5

Entirely because of Israel's behavior

2.6

6

Do not know

12

Total

100

 

18. What were the primary reasons for eruption of the '87 Intifada?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Mainly natural hatred towards Israel

23.6

2

Somewhat due to hatred

17.2

3

More or less equally due to hatred and other reasons (such as unwillingness to be controlled and harsh treatment by Israel)

32

4

Somewhat due to other reasons

6.6

5

Mainly due to other reasons

6.4

6

Do not know

14.2

Total

100

 

19. To what extent did the IDF exhibit moral conduct (refraining from illegal violent activities) during the -'87 Intifada? Grade it on a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 represents zero moral conduct and 7 represents absolute moral conduct.

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Zero moral conduct

1.4

2

A little moral conduct

2.6

3

More than a little moral conduct

6.6

4

Medium moral conduct

14.2

5

Significant moral conduct

17.8

6

Almost absolute moral conduct

13.4

7

Absolute moral conduct

23.4

8

Do not know

20.6

Total

100

 

20. Who is responsible for the failure of the peace process based on the Oslo agreements of the -'90s?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The Palestinians are almost entirely responsible for the failure

25.6

2

The Palestinians are primarily responsible

25

3

Both parties are more or less equally responsible

28.4

4

Israel is primarily responsible

3.2

5

Israel almost entirely

2.8

6

Do not know

15

Total

100

 

21. To what extent was the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt implemented by the Egyptian government?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Minimally

20

2

More than minimally

11.2

3

Medium

33.2

4

More than medium

12.6

5

Fully

8.6

6

Do not know

14.4

Total

100

 

22. What were the reasons for the failure of the negotiations between Barak and Arafat in Summer 2000?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Barak offered Arafat a very generous peace agreement but Arafat declined mainly because he did not want peace

55.6

2

Both parties are responsible for the failure since, for example, Barak's offer was insufficiently generous, and Arafat was unwilling to make compromises

25.4

3

Arafat did want peace but Barak was not generous enough in meeting the needs of the Palestinians

3

4

Do not know

16

Total

100

 

23. The 2000 Intifada erupted due:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

 

Solely because of an a priori plan by Arafat to engage in a violent clash with Israel

22.8

2

Mainly because of an a priori plan by Arafat

23

3

Partly because of an a prioi plan by Arafat and partly a
Spontaneous popular uprising

25.8

4

Mainly to a spontaneous popular uprising

9.2

5

Solely to a spontaneous popular uprising

6

6

Do not know

13.2

Total

100

 

24. What was the extent of moral conduct during fighting ("purity of arms") by the Jews throughout the conflict?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Very high

23

2

High

36.8

3

Medium

28.2

4

Low

4

5

Very low

1.4

6

Do not know

6.6

Total

100

 

Published Tuesday, Jan. 13, 2009

The Israeli-Jewish Collective Memory of the Israeli-Arab/Palestinian Conflict [Data]

Study Conducted by Rafi Nets-Zehngut (Teachers College, Columbia University) and Daniel Bar-Tal (Tel Aviv University), Summer 2008

For additional information about the study, click here, or contact Rafi Nets-Zehngut at rafi.nets@gmail.com
 
 

1. Which of the following sentences best describes your opinion with regard to the distribution of responsibility between the Jews and Arabs (including Palestinians) for the outbreak and continuation of the Israeli-Arab conflict?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The Arabs (including the Palestinians) are primarily responsible for the outbreak of the conflict and its continuation

43.4

2

The Arabs and the Jews are more or less equally responsible

46

3

The Jews are primarily responsible

4.2

4

Do not know

6.4

Total

100

 

2. To the best of your knowledge, what was the degree of sincerity of Israeli efforts versus those of the Arabs (including the Palestinians) to achieve peace through out the conflict?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Israel was very sincere but the Arabs were not sincere

27

2

Israel was somewhat sincere and the Arabs not

30.4

3

Both parties were sincere in about an equal degree

28.2

4

The Arabs were somewhat sincere and Israel not

1.6

5

The Arabs were very sincere and Israel not

0.4

6

Do not know

12.4

Total

100

 

3. To the best of your knowledge, what was the quality of the relations between the Jews and Palestinians in Eretz-Israel (the land of Israel) in the centuries that preceded the beginning of the Zionist immigration to Eretz-Israel in the end of the 19th century?

Relations were:

No.

Possible answers

 

% choosing this answer

1

Very bad

6.6

2

Somewhat bad

16.8

3

Medium

31.2

4

Somewhat good

29.4

5

Very good

3.8

6

Do not know

12.2

Total

100

 

4. To the best of your knowledge, what portion of the entire population of Eretz-Israel consisted of Palestinians before the Jewish pioneers began arriving at the end of the 19th century?

The Palestinians were:

No.

Possible Answers

% choosing this answer

1

The exclusive inhabitants of the land

0.6

2

The vast majority

22.8

3

The majority

36.6

4

Minority

15.8

5

An insignificant minority

6.0

6

Do not know

18.2

Total

100

 

5. To the best of your knowledge, who is responsible for the violence between the Jews and Palestinians that occurred in Eretz-Israel from the end of the 19th century until the eruption of the War of Independence?

The source of responsibility for the violence is:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Only the Palestinians

20.6

2

Mostly the Palestinians

37.8

3

Quite equally both parties

23.8

4

Mostly the Jews

3.6

5

Only the Jews

1.0

6

Do not know

13.2

Total

100

 

6. According to the United Nations' division resolution of -'47, what portion of Eretz-Israel were the Palestinians supposed to get, relative to their representation in the population?

The Palestinians got according to the resolution:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

A part of the land much bigger than their representation in the population

10

2

A part of the land bigger than their representation

19.2

3

A part of the land equal to their representation

20.4

4

A part of the land smaller than their representation

19

5

A part of the land much smaller than their representation

4.8

6

Do not know

26.6

Total

100

 

7. What portion of the Palestinians wanted to initiate a war against the Jews following the UN resolution of -'47 for the establishment of Israel?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The vast majority of the Palestinians wanted to initiate a war

26.8

2

The majority

33.6

3

About half

9.8

4

A minority

10.6

5

An insignificant minority

1.4

6

Do not know

17.8

Total

100

 

8. What were the reasons for the departure of Palestinian refugees during the War of Independence?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The refugees left due to fear and calls of leaders to leave

40.8

2

The refugees left due to fear, calls of leaders and expulsion by the Jews

39.2

3

The refugees were expelled by the Jews

8

4

Do not know

12

Total

100

 

9. What portion of the Israeli-Arabs (excluding those in East Jerusalem) have planned or taken part in terrorist activities against Israel since the War of Independence until today?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Almost all Israeli-Arabs acted like this

4.8

2

Most of them acted like this

17

3

About half of them

15.6

4

A minority of them

35.8

5

An insignificant minority of them

17

6

Do not know

9.8

Total

100

 

10. What were the main reasons for the entry into Israel of Arab/Palestinian infiltrators between the end of the War of Independence and the beginning of the Sinai War in -'56?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

All of them entered with the intent to commit terrorist acts (such as murder and sabotage)

12.4

2

Most of them entered with the intent to commit terrorist acts

20.2

3

About half entered with the intent to commit terrorist acts, while half entered with economic-social aims (such as cultivation of fields and visiting relatives)

32.2

4

Most entered with economic-social aims

12.2

5

All entered with economic-social aims

2

6

Do not know

21

Total

100

 

11. Why did Israel initiate the -'56 Sinai War?

Israel attacked:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Entirely because it had no other alternatives in response to aggressive actions by the Arabs

28.6

2

Mostly because it had no other alternatives

30

3

Partly because it had no other alternatives and partly because it sought to conquer and control Egyptian territories

14.2

4

Mostly because it sought to conquer and control Egyptian territories

4.6

5

Entirely because it sought to conquer and control territories

1.6

6

Do not know

21

Total

100

 

12. What was Israel's motivation in initiating the -'67 Six Day War?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Solely as a defense measure in response to war threats by Arab countries

37.2

2

Mostly as a defense measure in response to war threats

34.6

3

Partly as a defense measure and partly because it sought to conquer and control Arab territories

12.8

4

Mostly because it sought to conquer and control Egyptian territories

1.6

5

Solely because it sought to conquer and control territories

2

6

Do not know

11.8

Total

100

 

13. Prior to the -'73 Yom Kippur War:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

There were no peace initiatives between Israel and the Arabs

17.8

2

There were peace initiatives between Israel and the Arabs, but they failed due to the Arabs

20.2

3

There were peace initiatives that failed due to both parties

26.6

4

There were peace initiatives that failed due to the Israelis

5.2

5

Do not know

30.2

Total

100

 

14. What happened in the Yom Kippur War with regard to the balance of power between Israel and the Arabs?

It became clear that Israel is:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Much stronger than the Arabs and will not incur danger in fighting them

17

2

Stronger than the Arabs

43.2

3

Equal in its power to the Arabs

5.6

4

Not as strong as the Arabs and might incur danger in fighting them

19.2

5

Weaker than the Arabs

6

6

Do not know

9

Total

100

 

15. What were Israel's aims in the '82 Lebanon War?

Israel's aims were:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Only to prevent terror attacks against it from Lebanon

20.4

2

Mainly to prevent terror attacks from Lebanon

26.4

3

Partly to prevent terror attacks; and partly to build a new regional order in Lebanon

32

4

Mainly to build a new regional order in Lebanon

6

5

Only to build a new regional order in Lebanon

2

6

Do not know

13.2

Total

100

 

16. What were the reasons for establishing settlements in the West Bank and Gaza?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

For security purposes only, in order to prevent attacks against Israel from these territories

6.6

2

Mainly for security purposes

9.6

3

Quite equally for security purposes and ideological reasons

44

4

Mainly due to ideological reasons

23.2

5

Only due to ideological reasons

10.4

6

Do not know

6.2

Total

100

 

17. What have been the main reasons for violence against Israel by the Palestinian terrorist organizations?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Only the inherently violent nature of the Palestinians

23.8

2

Primarily because of their violent nature

23.8

3

Because of their violent nature of and Israel's behavior during the conflict

31.6

4

Primarily because of Israel's behavior

6.2

5

Entirely because of Israel's behavior

2.6

6

Do not know

12

Total

100

 

18. What were the primary reasons for eruption of the '87 Intifada?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Mainly natural hatred towards Israel

23.6

2

Somewhat due to hatred

17.2

3

More or less equally due to hatred and other reasons (such as unwillingness to be controlled and harsh treatment by Israel)

32

4

Somewhat due to other reasons

6.6

5

Mainly due to other reasons

6.4

6

Do not know

14.2

Total

100

 

19. To what extent did the IDF exhibit moral conduct (refraining from illegal violent activities) during the -'87 Intifada? Grade it on a scale from 1 to 7, where 1 represents zero moral conduct and 7 represents absolute moral conduct.

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Zero moral conduct

1.4

2

A little moral conduct

2.6

3

More than a little moral conduct

6.6

4

Medium moral conduct

14.2

5

Significant moral conduct

17.8

6

Almost absolute moral conduct

13.4

7

Absolute moral conduct

23.4

8

Do not know

20.6

Total

100

 

20. Who is responsible for the failure of the peace process based on the Oslo agreements of the -'90s?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

The Palestinians are almost entirely responsible for the failure

25.6

2

The Palestinians are primarily responsible

25

3

Both parties are more or less equally responsible

28.4

4

Israel is primarily responsible

3.2

5

Israel almost entirely

2.8

6

Do not know

15

Total

100

 

21. To what extent was the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt implemented by the Egyptian government?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Minimally

20

2

More than minimally

11.2

3

Medium

33.2

4

More than medium

12.6

5

Fully

8.6

6

Do not know

14.4

Total

100

 

22. What were the reasons for the failure of the negotiations between Barak and Arafat in Summer 2000?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Barak offered Arafat a very generous peace agreement but Arafat declined mainly because he did not want peace

55.6

2

Both parties are responsible for the failure since, for example, Barak's offer was insufficiently generous, and Arafat was unwilling to make compromises

25.4

3

Arafat did want peace but Barak was not generous enough in meeting the needs of the Palestinians

3

4

Do not know

16

Total

100

 

23. The 2000 Intifada erupted due:

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

 

Solely because of an a priori plan by Arafat to engage in a violent clash with Israel

22.8

2

Mainly because of an a priori plan by Arafat

23

3

Partly because of an a prioi plan by Arafat and partly a
Spontaneous popular uprising

25.8

4

Mainly to a spontaneous popular uprising

9.2

5

Solely to a spontaneous popular uprising

6

6

Do not know

13.2

Total

100

 

24. What was the extent of moral conduct during fighting ("purity of arms") by the Jews throughout the conflict?

No.

Possible answers

% choosing this answer

1

Very high

23

2

High

36.8

3

Medium

28.2

4

Low

4

5

Very low

1.4

6

Do not know

6.6

Total

100

 

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