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Center on Chinese Education
Teachers College, Columbia University
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Center on Chinese Education

哥伦比亚大学中国教育研究中心

About Us > About the Director

About the Director

Mun C. Tsang is Professor of Economics and Education at Teachers College, Columbia University. He was the Chair of the Department of International and Transcultural Studies at Teachers College from 1998 to 2000.  He founded the Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College Columbia University in 2000.  His scholarly interests are in education finance, economic effects of education, education costs and policy analysis, as well as education development and reform in China.  He has conducted teaching, research, and education exchange activities in China since 1982.  He is currently an affiliated professor of Peking University and Beijing Normal University, and President of the Foundation for the Economy and Education in China.  He has been a consultant of the World Bank for education projects and studies in China since 1986. He was awarded the Cheung Kong (Changjiang) Professorship in Economics of Education by the Chinese Ministry of Education in 2006, the Education for Poverty Reduction Award by Yunnan Education Society in 2005, the Richard Swanson Excellence in Research Award by American Academy for Human Resource Development in 2005, and Honorary President of the Education and Economics Society, China in 1996.  He received his BS and MS degrees in Chemical Engineering from Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1979, MA degree in Economics from Stanford University in 1983, and PhD degree in Economics of Education from Stanford University in 1984.


Teaching Experience In China

  • Changjiang Professor of Economics of Education, Peking University, China (Third Term, 4/2012-3/2015, Ministry of Education, China)
  • Honorary Professor, Yunnan Normal University (since 2012) International Scholar for Excellent Contributions to Chinese Education Development (2010, Chinese Education Society and Association of Non-government Education in China)
  • Honorary Professor, South China Normal University (since 2009)
  • Changjiang Professor of Economics of Education, Peking University, China (Second Term, 4/2009-3/2012, Ministry of Education, China)
  • Honorary Professor, Beijing Normal University (since 2007)
  • Changjiang Professor of Economics of Education, Peking University, China (First Term, 4/2006-3/2009, Ministry of Education, China)
  • Guest Professor (honorary) of Beijing Normal University
  • Guest Professor (honorary) of Peking University
  • Instructor of workshop on educational cost analysis held in Shashi , China . Sponsored by the World Bank Visiting Scholar, Beijing Normal University

Selected Research Studies On China

  • Financing of compulsory education in rural China
  • Privatization and school choice in China
  • Education policy and national development in China
  • Human-capital development and economic competitiveness in Shenzhen
  • Earnings of university of graduates
  • Education and earnings in rural China
  • Household education spending and access to primary education in rural China
  • Financial reform of higher education in China
  • Investment in education in China
  • Basic education and poverty reduction in rural China
  • Financial reform of basic education in China
  • Costs and financing of adult education in Shenzhen , China
  • Improving efficiency in higher education in China
  • The financing of basic education in Shaanxi and Guizhou
  • The structural reform of secondary education in China
    • Education and productivity in China
    • Higher-education reform and China 's entry into WTO

Other Professional Experience In China

  • President and Founder, Foundation for the Economy and Education in China
  • Honorary President for International Exchange and Cooperation, National Association of Economics of Education, China
  • International Advisor, National Association of Economics of Education, China
  • "Consultant to World Bank, Basic Education in Western China "
  • Consultant to World Bank, Study on Strategic Education Goals for China in the 21st century
  • Consultant to World Bank, Higher Education Reform Project , China
  • Consultant to World Bank, Fourth Basic Education Project in Poor Areas, China
  • Consultant to World Bank, Third Basic Education Project in Poor Areas, China
  • Consultant to World Bank, First Basic Education Project in Poor Areas, China
  • Consultant to World Bank, Study of Financing of Education in China
  • Consultant to World Bank, Educational Research in China
  • Coordinator, exchange activities with South China Normal University , East China Normal University , Central China Normal University , Beijing Normal University, and Peking University
  • External Reviewer, Chinese University of Hong Kong
  • External Reviewer, University Grant Commission, Government of Hong Kong

Publications, 1983-2013

Articles In Refereed Journals
  • Tsang, M., Ding, X., & Shen, H. (2010). Rural-urban disparities in private tutoring in lower-secondary education in China. Education and Economics.
  • Guo, C., Tsang, M., & Ding, X. (2009). Gender disparities in science and engineering in Chinese higher education. Economics of Education Review.
  • Tsang, M.,  & Yu, Z.(2008).  Higher-education internationalization: A comparison between China and Japan.  Exploring Educational Development, No. 21(in Chinese). (in Chinese)
  • Guo, C, Tsang, M. & Ding, X. (2007).  Gender disparities in higher education in China.  Higher Education Research (in Chinese).
  • Ding, Y. & Tsang, M (2006).   Financial disparities in compulsory education in China: 1997-2000.  Journal of Education and Economics.
  • Tsang, M. and Ding, Y. (2005). Resource utilization and challenges in the financing of compulsory education in China . China Review
  • Xiao, J. and Tsang, M. (2004). Determinants of education and training in Shenzhen. Human Resource Development Quarterly .
  • Tsang, M. and Ding, Y. (2003). Financial disparities in compulsory education in China . Peking University Education Review , 1(1): 84-94.
  • Li, D. and Tsang, M. (2003). Household decisions and gender inequality in education in rural China . China : An International Journal , 1(2): 224-248.
  • Li, L. and Tsang, M. (2002). The new school finance in the United States . Jiaoyu Yanjiu ( Educational Research ), No. 5:84-89.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Establishing and developing a substantial and regularized scheme of intergovernmental grants in compulsory education in China . Harvard China Review .
  • Tsang, M. (2000). Education and national development in China since 1949: Oscillating policies and enduring dilemmas. China Review (pp. 579-618).
  • Xiao, J. & Tsang, M. (1999) Human capital development in an emerging economy: The case of Shenzhen , China . China Quarterly , No. 157(March): 72-114.
  • Wei, X., Tsang, M., Chen, L.(1999) Education and earnings in rural China . Education Economics , 7(2): 167-187. Tsang, M. (1997) Cost analysis for improved policy making in education. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(4):18-24.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). The cost of vocational training. International Journal of Manpower , 18(1/2): 63-89.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Economics of education: Past, present, and future. Journal of Educational Research , 1997(4): 29-37 & 49.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Financial reform of basic education in China . Economics of Education Review, 15(4): 423-444.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs of education in China : Issues of resource mobilization, equality, equity, and efficiency. Education Economics , 2(3), 287-312.
  • Xiao, J., and Tsang, M. (1994). The costs and financing of adult training: A case study of Shenzhen , China. International Journal of Educational Development , 14(1), 51-64.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Private costs of schooling in developing countries. Jiaoyu yi Jingji (Education and Economics , a journal published in China ),8(3), 26-31.
  • Tsang, M. and Taoklam, W. (1992). Comparing the costs of public and private primary education in Thailand . International Journal of Educational Development , 12(3), 177-190.
  • Tsang, M., & Kidchanapansich, S. (1992). Private resources and the quality of primary education in Thailand . International Journal of Educational Research , 17(2), 179-198. 
  • Tsang, M., and Min, W. (1992). Expansion, efficiency, and economies of scale of higher education in China. Higher Education Policy , 5(2), 61-66.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The structural reform of secondary education in China . Journal of Education Administration , 29(4), 65-83.
  • Tsang, M., Rumberger, R., & Levin, H. (1991). The impact of surplus schooling on worker productivity. Industrial Relations , 30(2), 209-228.
  • Min, W., & Tsang, M. (1990). Vocational education and productivity: A case study of the Beijing General Auto Industry Company. Economics of Education Review , 9(4), 351-364.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). Economics of over-education: A reply. Economics of Education Review . 8(2), 209.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). Cost analysis for educational policy making: A review of cost studies in education in developing countries. Review of Educational Research , 58(2), 181-230.
  • Tsang, M. (1987). The impact of under-utilization of education on productivity. Economics of Education Review , 6(3), 239-254.
  • Levin, H. & Tsang, M. (1987). The economics of student time. Economics of Education Review , 6(4), 357-364.
  • Tsang, M. (1986). Economics of education since 1970. Educational Research (No. 10: 68-73, & No. 11: 71-75).
  • Tsang, M. (1986). Recent developments in economics of education. Education and Economics 1: 43-46. Tsang, M., & Levin, H. (1985). The economics of over-education. Economics of Education Review, 4(2), 93-104.
  • Tsang, M., & Levin, H. (1983). The impact of intergovernmental grants on educational expenditure. Review of Educational Research , 53(3), 329-367. 
Chapters In Books And Research Monographs
  • Gong, X. & Tsang, M.(2011), Interprovincial and Regional Inequity in the Financing of Compulsory Education in China, in Tiedan Huang, Alexander W. Wiseman (ed.) The Impact and Transformation of Education Policy in China (International Perspectives on Education and Society, Volume 15), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.43-78.
  • Tsang, M. & Ding, Y. (2011).  Financial disparities in compulsory education in China.  In Tsang, et. al.  Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. & Ding, Y. (2011).  The role of intergovernmental grants in decentralized financing of compulsory education in China.  Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. Yang, C. & Qiu, L. (2011).  Issues and policies in minority education in Yunnan.  In Tsang, M., et.al. Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. (2003). Intergovernmental grants and the financing of compulsory education in China . In School of Education , Peking University Studies in Economics of Education . Beijing , China .
  • Tsang, M. (2003). School choice in the People's Republic of China . In Plank, D. and Sykes, G. Choosing choice. New York : Teachers College Press.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Education economics, developing nations. In Guthrie, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Education, 2 nd edition . Macmillan.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Comparing the costs of public and private schools in developing countries. In Levin, H. and McEwan, P. (eds.) Cost-effectiveness studies in education, 2002 Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association .
  • Tsang, M. (2000) Cost analysis and policy-making in education. In Stufflebeam, D., Madaus, G., and Kellaghan, T. (eds.) Evaluation models: Viewpoints on educational and human services evaluation (2 nd edition) , pp. 163-171. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). The economic burden of compulsory schooling on families in poor areas in China . In Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) Economic analysis of education policy . Beijing , China : Education Science Press.
  • Wei, X., and Tsang, M. (2000). Earnings differences between graduates from two types of universities in China . In Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) Economic analysis of education policy . Beijing , China : Education Science Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1999). Economics of education. In Peretz, M., Brown, S., and Moon, B. (Eds.) International Encyclopedic Dictionary of Education . Routledge.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). The costs of adult education and training. In Tuijnman, A. (ed.) International Encyclopedia of Adult and Continuing Education. Elsevier Science and Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Cost analysis in education. In Carnoy, M. (ed.) The international encyclopedia of economics of education (pp. 386-392). Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Public and private costs of schooling in developing countries. In Carnoy, M. (1995). The international encyclopedia of economics of education (pp. 393-398). Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs and relative efficiency of public and private education: The case of primary education in Thailand . In Walberg, H. and Barnett, S. (eds.). Cost analysis in education (pp. 203-231). JAI Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Cost analysis and educational policy making: A review of cost studies in education in developing countries. In Johnes, G. and Cohn, E. (eds.). Recent developments in economics of education. Carfax Publishing Company.
  • Tsang, M., Rumberger, R., and Levin, H. (1994). The impact of surplus schooling on productivity. In Johnes, G., and Cohn, E. (eds.) Recent developments in economics of education. Carfax Publishing Company.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Cost analysis in education. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition , pp. 1121-1127. Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Public and private costs of schooling in developing nations. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition, pp. 4702-4708. Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs of continuing education: Industrialized countries. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition , pp. 1146-1152 Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). China : Vocationalizing education. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition , pp. 755-760. Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). The costs and financing of secondary education in Nepal . In World Bank , Nepal : Critical issues in secondary education . Washington , DC: South Asia Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Financial reform in basic education: The Chinese experience. In Verspoor, A., & Tsang, M. (Eds.) Case studies in financing quality basic education, pp. 53-71. Washington , DC : Education and Social Policy Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Comparative perspectives on costs and financing of education. In State Education Commission, China . Papers and proceedings of the policy seminar on financing of education . Beijing , China.
  • Tsang, M. & Wheeler, C. (1993). Local initiatives and a multi-level approach to school improvement in Thailand . In Levin, H. and Lockheed, M. (eds.). Effective schools in developing countries , pp. 108-129. Falmer Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Job training and retraining. In Michigan State University Extension. Focus on Michigan 's future: Trends and perspectives . East Lansing , MI : Michigan State University .
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Financing secondary and intermediate education in Pakistan . In World Bank, Islamic Republic of Pakistan : Review of secondary and intermediate education. Washington , DC : South Asia Department.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The costs and financing of education in the Republic of Yemen . In World Bank, Republic of Yemen : Human development--Societal needs and human capital response. Washington , DC : Middle East and North Africa Department, World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The financing of basic education in Shaanxi and Guizhou , China . In World Bank , China : Provincial education planning and finance--sector study. Washington , DC : China and Mongolia Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). New developments in economics of education in the West since the 1970s. In Wang, S. (ed.) Economics of Education , pp. 381-412. Beijing , China : Beijing Normal University Press.
Books
  • Chen, C., Tsang, M., & Wen, D. (forthcoming in 2013).  The internationalization of research universities in China.  Guanzhou, China: Sun Yat-Sen University Press.
  • Tsang, M., et.al. (Eds.) (2011). Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. & Ding, Y. (2011).  The role of intergovernmental grants in decentralized financing of compulsory education in China.  Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. Yang, C. & Qiu, L. (2011).  Issues and policies in minority education in Yunnan.  In Tsang, M., et.al. Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M., et.al. (2006). Financing of compulsory education in China. Education Science Press, Beijing, China.
  • Tsang, M., Fryer, M., and Arevalos, G. (2002). Access, equity, and performance: Education in Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Washington, DC : Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) (2000). Economic analysis of educational policy. Beijing, China : People's Education Press.
  • Tsang, M., Chung, Y., & Jin, X. (Eds.) (1995). Critical issues in policy analysis and management of education. Beijing, China : People's Daily Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Cost analysis of educational inclusion of marginalized population. Paris : IIEP, UNESCO. (in English and French editions)
  • Tsang, M., Xie, B., Qu, H., & Cui, W. (Eds.) (1990). Western perspectives in economics of education. Beijing, China : Beijing Normal University Press.
Monographs, Research Reports, And Technical Manuals
  • Zhang, Y., Ding, Y., and Tsang, M (2013). Gender gap in academic performance in the national entrance examination in China.  Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College Columbia University
  • Gong, X., Ding, Y., and Tsang, M. (2013) Gender gap in academic performance in compulsory education in southwestern China. Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College Columbia University
  • Tsang, M. et. al. (2003). The financing of compulsory education in rural China. Research report prepared for the Ford Foundation. Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Xiao, J. & Tsang, M. (2001). The determinants of on-the-job training and adult education. New York : Publication Series No. D-2, Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College Columbia University.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Recent development in technology education: A review of international experience. Report prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Financing of education in Jamaica : Issues and strategies. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and Ministry of Education and Culture, Government of Jamaica.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Jamaica educational cost and finance model: User's guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Jamaica.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Barbados educational cost and finance model: User's guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Barbados.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Trinidad and Tobago educational cost and finance model: User's guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Financing of education in Guyana : Issues and strategies. Washington, DC : Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Guyana education financing model: User's guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Guyana.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Bhutan education financing model: User's guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Bhutan.
  • Tsang, M. et. al. (1995). Bangladesh : Education expenditure review. Report prepared for the South Asia Department, World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Issues in vocational training in the Republic of Yemen : Cost effectiveness, community participation, and equity. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Tsang, M. (1993) Bangladesh : A review of costs and financing issues in education. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Verspoor, A., & Tsang, M. (1993) (eds.) Case studies in financing quality basic education. Washington, D.C. : Education and Social Policy Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Skill demand indicators for Michigan. East Lansing, MI : Michigan Partnership for New Education.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Private secondary education in Nepal : Issues of costs, quality, and equity. Report prepared for South Asia Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1990). The design of a module for estimating costs and enrollments for national planning in Pakistan. Report prepared for the Planning Division, Government of Pakistan.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). The costs of vocational training. Washington, D.C. : Population and Human Resource Department, The World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). Cost analysis and educational policy making in developing countries. BRIDGES Research Report Series, No. 3. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University. (In both English and Arabic. Arabic version was prepared by the Ministry of Education, Egypt ).
  • Tsang, M. (1987). A cost-of-education data system for national educational planning and policy analysis. Cambridge, MA.: Project BRIDGES Institute for International Development, Harvard University.
  • Hartog, J., & Tsang, M. (1987). Estimating, testing, and applying a comparative advantage earnings function for the U.S. 1969-1973-1977. Stanford Education Policy Institute (Program Report No. 87-SEPI), Stanford University . 
  • Schwille, J., Beeftu, A., Navarro, R., Prouty, R., Raudenbush, S., Tsang, M., and Wheeler, C. (1986). Recognizing, fostering and modeling school effectiveness in third world countries. Cambridge, MA : Project BRIDGES, Institute for International Development, Harvard University.
  • Rumberger, R., Levin H., & Tsang, M. (1986). Surplus schooling and worker productivity. Stanford Education Policy Institute (Program report No. 86-SEPI-15), Stanford University.
  • Tsang, M. (1984). The impact of overeducation on productivity. Institute for Educational Finance and Governance (Program Report No. 84-B10), Stanford University, California.
  • Levin, H., and Tsang, M. (1984). The economics of student time. Institute for Educational Finance and Governance (Program Report No. 84-B9), Stanford University, California.
  • Tsang, M. (1984). The economics of overeducation. Institute for Educational Finance and Governance (Program Report No. 84-B3), Stanford University.  
  • Levin, H. & Tsang, M. (1982). Federal grants and national educational policy. Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance (Report No. 82-A18), Stanford University. 
Book Reviews
  • Bray, M. (1991). [Review of Are small schools the answer? Cost-effective strategies for rural school provision ]. London : The Commonwealth Secretariat. Economics of Education Review, 10 (2), 181.
  • Bray, M. (1991). [Review of multiple-shift schooling: Design and operation for cost-effectiveness ]. London: The Commonwealth Secretariat. Economics of Education Review, 10 (2), 181.
  • Coombs, P., & Hallak, J. (1989). [Review of Cost analysis in education ]. Baltimore, MD : Johns Hopkins University Press. Educational Researcher, 18 (5), 56-59.
  • Yondi, R. V., & Hinchliffe, K. (eds.) (1988). [Review of Forecasting skilled manpower needs ]. Paris : UNESCO, IIEP. Economics of Education Review, 7 (2), 271.

Publications On Chinese Educational Development And Reform

  • Chen, C., Tsang, M., & Wen, D. (forthcoming in 2013).  The internationalization of research universities in China.  Guanzhou, China: Sun Yat-Sen University Press.
  • Tsang, M., et.al. (Eds.) (2011). Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M., Ding, X., & Shen, H. (2010). Rural-urban disparities in private tutoring in lower-secondary education in China. Education and Economics.
  • Guo, C., Tsang, M., & Ding, X. (2009). Gender disparities in science and engineering in Chinese higher education. Economics of Education Review.
  • Tsang, M.,  & Yu, Z.(2008).  Higher-education internationalization: A comparison between China and Japan.  Exploring Educational Development, No. 21(in Chinese).
  • Xiao, J. and Tsang, M. (2004). Determinants of education and training in Shenzhen. Human Resource Development Quarterly.
  • Tsang, M. and Ding, Y. (2003). Financial disparities in compulsory education in China (in Chinese). Peking University Education Review, 1(1): 84-94.
  • Tsang, M. et. al. (2003). The financing of compulsory education in rural China. Research report prepared for the Ford Foundation. Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College, Columbia University. 
  • Li, D. and Tsang, M. (2003). Household decisions and gender inequality in education in rural China. China : An International Journal, 1(2): 224-248.
  • Tsang, M. (2003). Intergovernmental grants and the financing of compulsory education in China. In School of Education, Peking University Studies in Economics of Education. Beijing, China.
  • Tsang, M. (2003). School choice in the People's Republic of China. In Plank, D. and Sykes, G. Choosing choice. New York : Teachers College Press.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Establishing and developing a substantial and regularized scheme of intergovernmental grants in compulsory education in China. Harvard China Review.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). Education and national development in China since 1949: Oscillating policies and enduring dilemmas. China Review (pp. 579-618).
  • Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) (2000). Economic analysis of educational policy. Beijing, China : People's Education Press.
  • Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) (2000). Economic analysis of educational policy (in Chinese). Beijing, China : People's Education Press.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). The economic burden of compulsory schooling on families in poor areas in China (in Chinese). In Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) Economic analysis of education policy. Beijing, China : Education Science Press.
  • Xiao, J. & Tsang, M. (1999) Human capital development in an emerging economy: The case of Shenzhen, China. China Quarterly, No. 157(March): 72-114.
  • Wei, X., Tsang, M., Chen, L.(1999) Education and earnings in rural China. Education Economics, 7(2): 167-187
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Financial reform of basic education in China. Economics of Education Review, 15(4): 423-444.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs of education in China : Issues of resource mobilization, equality, equity, and efficiency. Education Economics, 2(3), 287-312.
  • Xiao, J., and Tsang, M. (1994). The costs and financing of adult training: A case study of Shenzhen, China. International Journal of Educational Development, 14(1), 51-64.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). China : Vocationalizing education. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition, pp. 755-760. Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Financial reform in basic education: The Chinese experience. In Verspoor, A., & Tsang, M. (Eds.) Case studies in financing quality basic education, pp. 53-71. Washington, DC : Education and Social Policy Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M., and Min, W. (1992). Expansion, efficiency, and economies of scale of higher education in China. Higher Education Policy, 5(2), 61-66.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The structural reform of secondary education in China. Journal of Education Administration, 29(4), 65-83.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The financing of basic education in Shaanxi and Guizhou, China. In World Bank, China : Provincial education planning and finance--sector study. Washington, DC : China and Mongolia Department, the World Bank.
  • Min, W., & Tsang, M. (1990). Vocational education and productivity: A case study of the Beijing General Auto Industry Company. Economics of Education Review, 9(4), 351-364.

Publications On Education Costs, Policy Analysis And Modeling

  • Tsang, M., Ding, X., & Shen, H. (2010). Rural-urban disparities in private tutoring in lower-secondary education in China. Education and Economics.
  • Nyeu, F. & Tsang, M. (2007).  University mergers in advanced industrialized countries.  Journal of Educational Development (in Chinese).
  • Ding, Y. & Tsang, M (2006).   Financial disparities in compulsory education in China: 1997-2000.  Journal of Education and Economics.
  • Tsang, M. (2003). School choice in the People's Republic of China. In Plank, D. and Sykes, G. Choosing choice. New York : Teachers College Press.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Comparing the costs of public and private schools in developing countries. In Levin, H. and McEwan, P. (eds.) Cost-effectiveness studies in education (2002 Yearbook of the American Education Finance Association.
  • Tsang, M. (2000) Cost analysis and policy-making in education. In Stufflebeam, D., Madaus, G., and Kellaghan, T. (eds.) Evaluation models: Viewpoints on educational and human services evaluation (2 nd edition), pp. 163-171. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). The economic burden of compulsory schooling on families in poor areas in China. In Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) Economic analysis of education policy. Beijing, China : Education Science Press.
  • Tsang, M., Wei, X., and Xiao, J. (Eds.) (2000). Economic analysis of educational policy. Beijing, China : People's Education Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Jamaica educational cost and finance model: Users Guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Jamaica.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Barbados educational cost and finance model: User=s guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Barbados.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Trinidad and Tobago educational cost and finance model: Users guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Tsang, M. (1997) Cost analysis for improved policy making in education. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(4):18-24.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). The cost of vocational training. International Journal of Manpower, 18(1/2): 63-89.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). The costs of adult education and training. In Tuijnman, A. (ed.) International Encyclopedia of Adult and Continuing Education. Elsevier Science and Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Guyana education financing model: Users guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Guyana.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Bhutan education financing model: Users guide. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and the Government of Bhutan.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Cost analysis in education. In Carnoy, M. (ed.) The international encyclopedia of economics of education (pp. 386-392). Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Public and private costs of schooling in developing countries. In Carnoy, M. (1995). The international encyclopedia of economics of education (pp. 393-398). Pergamon Press. 
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Cost analysis of educational inclusion of marginalized population. Paris : IIEP, UNESCO. (in English and French editions)
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs and relative efficiency of public and private education: The case of primary education in Thailand. In Walberg, H. and Barnett, S. (eds.). Cost analysis in education (pp. 203-231). JAI Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Cost analysis and educational policy making: A review of cost studies in education in developing countries. In Johnes, G. and Cohn, E. (eds.). Recent developments in economics of education. Carfax Publishing Company.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Cost analysis in education. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition, pp. 1121-1127. Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Public and private costs of schooling in developing nations. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition, pp. 4702-4708. Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs of continuing education: Industrialized countries. In Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, N. (eds.). International encyclopedia of education, second edition, pp. 1146-1152 Pergamon Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Costs of education in China : Issues of resource mobilization, equality, equity, and efficiency. Education Economics, 2(3), 287-312.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). The costs and financing of secondary education in Nepal. In World Bank, Nepal : Critical issues in secondary education. Washington, DC : South Asia Department, the World Bank. Tsang
  • Xiao, J., and Tsang, M. (1994). The costs and financing of adult training: A case study of Shenzhen, China. International Journal of Educational Development, 14(1), 51-64.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Issues in vocational training in the Republic of Yemen : Cost effectiveness, community participation, and equity. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Private costs of schooling in developing countries. Jiaoyu yi Jingji (Education and Economics, a journal published in, M. & Wheeler, C. (1993). Local initiatives and a multi-level approach to school improvement in Thailand. In Levin, H. and Lockheed, M. (eds.). Effective schools in developing countries, pp. 108-129. Falmer Press.
  • Tsang, M. and Taoklam, W. (1992). Comparing the costs of public and private primary education in Thailand. International Journal of Educational Development, 12(3), 177-190.
  • Tsang, M., & Kidchanapansich, S. (1992). Private resources and the quality of primary education in Thailand. International Journal of Educational Research, 17(2), 179-198.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Private secondary education in Nepal : Issues of costs, quality, and equity. Report prepared for South Asia Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The costs and financing of education in the Republic of Yemen. In World Bank, Republic of Yemen : Human development--Societal needs and human capital response. Washington, DC : Middle East and North Africa Department, World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1990). The design of a module for estimating costs and enrollments for national planning in Pakistan. Report prepared for the Planning Division, Government of Pakistan.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). The costs of vocational training. Washington, D.C. : Population and Human Resource Department, The World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). Cost analysis for educational policy making: A review of cost studies in education in developing countries. Review of Educational Research, 58(2), 181-230.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). Cost analysis and educational policy making in developing countries. BRIDGES Research Report Series, No. 3. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University. (In both English and Arabic. Arabic version was prepared by the Ministry of Education, Egypt ).
  • Tsang, M. (1987). A cost-of-education data system for national educational planning and policy analysis. Cambridge, MA.: Project BRIDGES Institute for International Development, Harvard University. -->

Publications On Financing Of Education

  • Tsang, M., et.al. (Eds.) (2011). Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Gong, X. & Tsang, M.(2011), Interprovincial and Regional Inequity in the Financing of Compulsory Education in China, in Tiedan Huang, Alexander W. Wiseman (ed.) The Impact and Transformation of Education Policy in China (International Perspectives on Education and Society, Volume 15), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp.43-78.
  • Zhang, Y., Mizunoya, S., You, Y., & Tsang, M. (2011).  Financial inequity in basic education in selected OCED countries.  International Education Studies, 4(3): 3-22.
  • Tsang, M., et.al. (2006). Financing of compulsory education in China (in Chinese). Education Science Press, Beijing, China.
  • Tsang, M. and Ding, Y. (2005). Resource utilization and challenges in the financing of compulsory education in China. China Review.
  • Tsang, M. and Ding, Y. (2003). Financial disparities in compulsory education in China. Peking University Education Review (in Chinese), 1(1): 84-94.
  • Tsang, M. et. al. (2003). The financing of compulsory education in rural China. Research report prepared for the Ford Foundation. Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College, Columbia University.
  • Tsang, M. (2003). Intergovernmental grants and the financing of compulsory education in China. In School of Education, Peking University Studies in Economics of Education. Beijing, China.
  • Li, L. and Tsang, M. (2002). The new school finance in the United States. Jiaoyu Yanjiu ( Educational Research ), No. 5:84-89.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Establishing and developing a substantial and regularized scheme of intergovernmental grants in compulsory education in China. Harvard China Review.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Financing of education in Jamaica : Issues and strategies. Prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank and Ministry of Education and Culture, Government of Jamaica.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Financing of education in Guyana : Issues and strategies. Washington, DC : Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Financial reform of basic education in China. Economics of Education Review, 15(4): 423-444.
  • Tsang, M. et. al. (1995). Bangladesh : Education expenditure review. Report prepared for the South Asia Department, World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). The costs and financing of secondary education in Nepal. In World Bank, Nepal : Critical issues in secondary education. Washington, DC : South Asia Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1993) Bangladesh : A review of costs and financing issues in education. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Verspoor, A., & Tsang, M. (1993) (eds.) Case studies in financing quality basic education. Washington, D.C. : Education and Social Policy Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Financial reform in basic education: The Chinese experience. In Verspoor, A., & Tsang, M. (Eds.) Case studies in financing quality basic education, pp. 53-71. Washington, DC : Education and Social Policy Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Financing secondary and intermediate education in Pakistan. In World Bank, Islamic Republic of Pakistan : Review of secondary and intermediate education. Washington, DC : South Asia Department.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The costs and financing of education in the Republic of Yemen. In World Bank, Republic of Yemen : Human development--Societal needs and human capital response. Washington, DC : Middle East and North Africa Department, World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The financing of basic education in Shaanxi and Guizhou, China. In World Bank, China : Provincial education planning and finance--sector study. Washington, DC : China and Mongolia Department, the World Bank.
  • Tsang, M., & Levin, H. (1983). The impact of intergovernmental grants on educational expenditure. Review of Educational Research, 53(3), 329-367.
  • Levin, H. & Tsang, M. (1982). Federal grants and national educational policy. Institute for Research on Educational Finance and Governance (Report No. 82-A18), Stanford University.
  • Tsang, M., Ding, X., & Shen, H. (2010). Rural-urban disparities in private tutoring in lower-secondary education in China. Education and Economics.
  • Ding, Y. & Tsang, M (2006).   Financial disparities in compulsory education in China: 1997-2000. Journal of Education and Economics.
  • Tsang, M., et. al. (2008) Financial disparities in basic education.  New York: Center on Chinese Education, Teachers College Columbia University.
  • Tsang, M. & Ding, Y. (2011).  Financial disparities in compulsory education in China.  In Tsang, et. al.  Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. & Ding, Y. (2011).  The role of intergovernmental grants in decentralized financing of compulsory education in China.  Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)
  • Tsang, M. & Li, W. (2011).  School finance reform in four states in the United States.  In Tsang, M., et.al.  Financing compulsory education in China: Efficiency, equity, and adequacy.  Beijing, China: Peking University Press. (in Chinese)

Publications On Education And Economic Development

  • Xiao, J. and Tsang, M. (2004). Determinants of education and training in Shenzhen. Human Resource Development Quarterly.
  • Li, D. and Tsang, M. (2003). Household decisions and gender inequality in education in rural China. China : An International Journal, 1(2): 224-248.
  • Tsang, M., Fryer, M., and Arevalos, G. (2002). Access, equity, and performance: Education in Barbados, Guyana, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago. Washington, DC : Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Education economics, developing nations. In Guthrie, J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Education, 2 nd edition. Macmillan.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). Education and national development in China since 1949: Oscillating policies and enduring dilemmas. China Review (pp. 579-618).
  • Xiao, J. & Tsang, M. (1999) Human capital development in an emerging economy: The case of Shenzhen, China. China Quarterly, No. 157(March): 72-114
  • Wei, X., Tsang, M., Chen, L.(1999) Education and earnings in rural China. Education Economics, 7(2): 167-187.
  • Tsang, M. (1999). Economics of education. In Peretz, M., Brown, S., and Moon, B. (Eds.) International Encyclopedic Dictionary of Education. Routledge.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Recent development in technology education: A review of international experience. Report prepared for the Inter-American Development Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Economics of education: Past, present, and future. Journal of Educational Research, 1997(4): 29-37 & 49.
  • Tsang, M., Chung, Y., & Jin, X. (Eds.) (1995). Critical issues in policy analysis and management of education (in Chinese). Beijing, China : People's Daily Press.
  • Tsang, M., Rumberger, R., and Levin, H. (1994). The impact of surplus schooling on productivity. In Johnes, G., and Cohn, E. (eds.) Recent developments in economics of education. Carfax Publishing Company.
  • Tsang, M., and Min, W. (1992). Expansion, efficiency, and economies of scale of higher education in China. Higher Education Policy, 5(2), 61-66.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Skill demand indicators for Michigan. East Lansing, MI : Michigan Partnership for New Education.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Job training and retraining. In Michigan State University Extension. Focus on Michigan 's future: Trends and perspe n ctives. East Lansing, MI : Michigan State University.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). The structural reform of secondary education in China. Journal of Education Administration, 29(4), 65-83.
  • Tsang, M., Rumberger, R., & Levin, H. (1991). The impact of surplus schooling on worker productivity. Industrial Relations, 30(2), 209-228.
  • Min, W., & Tsang, M. (1990). Vocational education and productivity: A case study of the Beijing General Auto Industry Company. Economics of Education Review, 9(4), 351-364.
  • Tsang, M., Xie, B., Qu, H., & Cui, W. (Eds.) (1990). Western perspectives in economics of education (in Chinese). Beijing, China : Beijing Normal University Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). Economics of over-education: A reply. Economics of Education Review. 8(2), 209.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). New developments in economics of education in the West since the 1970s. In Wang, S. (ed.) Economics of Education, pp. 381-412. Beijing, China : Beijing Normal University Press.
  • Tsang, M. (1987). The impact of under-utilization of education on productivity. Economics of Education Review, 6(3), 239-254.
  • Levin, H. & Tsang, M. (1987). The economics of student time. Economics of Education Review, 6(4), 357-364.
  • Hartog, J., & Tsang, M. (1987). Estimating, testing, and applying a comparative advantage earnings function for the U.S. 1969-1973-1977. Stanford Education Policy Institute (Program Report No. 87-SEPI), Stanford University.
  • Tsang, M. (1986). Economics of education since 1970 (in Chinese). Educational Research (No. 10: 68-73, & No. 11: 71-75).
  • Tsang, M. (1986). Recent developments in economics of education (in Chinese). Education and Economics 1: 43-46.
  • Rumberger, R., Levin H., & Tsang, M. (1986). Surplus schooling and worker productivity. Stanford Education Policy Institute (Program report No. 86-SEPI-15), Stanford University.
  • Tsang, M., & Levin, H. (1985). The economics of over-education. Economics of Education Review, 4(2), 93-104.
  • Tsang, M. (1984). The impact of overeducation on productivity. Institute for Educational Finance and Governance (Program Report No. 84-B10), Stanford University, California.
  • Levin, H., and Tsang, M. (1984). The economics of student time. Institute for Educational Finance and Governance (Program Report No. 84-B9), Stanford University, California.
  • Tsang, M. (1984). The economics of overeducation. Institute for Educational Finance and Governance (Program Report No. 84-B3), Stanford University.
  • Guo, C., Tsang, M., & Ding, X. (2009). Gender disparities in science and engineering in Chinese higher education. Economics of Education Review. 
  • Chen, C., Tsang, M., & Wen, D. (forthcoming in 2013).  The internationalization of research universities in China.  Guanzhou, China: Sun Yat-Sen University Press.
  • Tsang, M., Wang, M. & Lin, L. (2009).  The internationalization of higher education in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia.  Peking University Education Review, 7(2): 75-102 (in Chinese).
  • Tsang, M.,  & Yu, Z.(2008).  Higher-education internationalization: A comparison between China and Japan.  Exploring Educational Development, No. 21(in Chinese).
  • Shi, Y. & Tsang, M. (2007).  The evaluation of adult literacy programs in the United States: A review of methodological issues.  Educational Research Review, 3(2): 187-217.

Presentations, 1985-2005

  • Tsang, M. (2005). Education decentralization and intergovernmental grants: Lessons from China. Presented at the International Conference on Education Decentralization, held at the World Bank on January 13-14, 2005.
  • Tsang, M. (2004). Faculty salaries and incentives. Presented at the Seminar for University Leaders at Teachers College Columbia University, October 20.
  • Tsang, M. (2004). University technology transfer in the United States. Presented at the seminar on economics and management in education, July 12, Shanghai University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
  • Tsang, M. (2004). The financing of compulsory education in China : Lessons learned. Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Salt Lake City, Utah, March 2004.
  • Tsang, M. (2003). School choice in the People's Republic of China. Presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference in Chicago, April.
  • Tsang, M. (2003). Resource utilization and disparities in the financing of compulsory education in China. Paper presented at the International Conference on Chinese Education, held at Teachers College, Columbia University, February 6-7.
  • Tsang, M. (2002) Critical issues in educational research in China in the new century. Presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Orlando, March 6-9.
  • Ding, Y. and Tsang, M. (2002). Financial disparities in compulsory education in China. Presented at the Association for Asian Studies Conference in Washington, DC, April 4-7.
  • Li, D. and Tsang, M. (2002). Girls education and household education spending in rural China. Presented at the Association for Asian Studies Conference in Washington, DC, April 4-7.
  • Tsang, M. (2002). Economic analysis and education policymaking. Presented at Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, China, on July 12, 2002.
  • Tsang, M. (2001). Financing compulsory education in rural China. Presented at the Conference on Education Reform in China, at Harvard University, July 13-14, 2001.
  • Tsang, M. (2001). Intergovernmental grants and the financing of education in China. Presented at the International Conference on Economics of Education, at Peking University, China, May 17-19, 2001.
  • Tsang, M. (2001). School choice in urban China. Presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Washington, DC, April 2001.
  • Tsang, M. (2001). Privatization in education in China. Presented at the Seminar on Chinese Education, at Teachers College, March 8, 2001.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). Privatization and choice in basic education in China. Presentation at the New England Association for Asian Studies Conference, held in Providence, Rhode Island, September 30-October 1.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). The economic burden of compulsory schooling on families in poor areas of China. Presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference in New Orleans, April 24-28.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). Integrating programs in education economics and in comparative international education. Presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in San Antonio, March 8-12.
  • Tsang, M. (2000). School choice in the People's Republic of China. Presented at the International Conference on School Choice and School Reform in East Lansing, March 15-17.
  • Tsang, M. (1999). Alternative strategies for human capital development in a fast-growing fast-changing area. Joint presentation with Jin Xiao at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Toronto in April.
  • Tsang, M. (1999). International and transcultural studies at Teachers College, Columbia University. Joint presentation with faculty from Department of International and Transcultural Studies, Teachers College, at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Toronto in April.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Recent development in technology education: A review of international experience. Presented at an international seminar on technology education on July 20, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Issues and strategies for the financing of education in Jamaica. Presented at the National Seminar on Education Financing in Kingston, Jamaica, in April 1998.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Household educational spending and access to compulsory education in poor counties in China. Presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Buffalo, New York, March 1998.
  • Tsang, M. (1998). Education and earnings in rural China. Presented at the Mid-west Economics Association Conference in Chicago, March, 1998.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Human-capital development in a fast-growing fast-changing area: The Shenzhen model. Presented at the Center Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, on November 18, 1997.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). The economic effects of education in rural China. Presented at the national conference of the Association for Asian Studies, in Chicago, on March 13-16, 1997.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Household expenditures and the Education-For-All Policy: A cross-national study. Presented at the American Educational Research Association conference in Chicago, on March 24-29, 1997.
  • Tsang, M. (1997). Economic evaluation of policy options for the development of secondary education in Trinidad and Tobago. Presented at the workshop on educational finance, held in Port of Spain, the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, on March 3-5, 1997.
  • Koshimura, M., and Tsang, M. (1997). Financing strategies for equalization in basic education: A cross-national review. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University. Paper prepared for the World Bank, Washington, DC. (To be submitted for presentation at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Buffalo, NY, in March 19-22, 1998.)
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Education and poverty reduction in rural China. Presented at the Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan.
  • Tsang, M., and Min, W. (1996). An evaluation of the financial reform of higher education in China. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Household education spending in Yunnan and Shanxi, China. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Household education spending in poor counties in China. Presented at the Mid-west Economic Association conference in Chicago, March 1996.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Issues of efficiency, equity, and equality in the financing of education in Guyana. Presented at the Inter-American Development Bank seminar on education financing, March 1996.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Policy analysis and education financing in Guyana. Presented at an international seminar on education financing in Georgetown, Guyana, March 1996.
  • Tsang, M. (1996). Private costs of education in urban areas in China. Presented at the Western Comparative and International Education Society conference in Honolulu, January 1996.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Household education spending and access to basic schooling in two poor countries. Presented at the American Education Research Association Conference in San Francisco, April 1995.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). The costs of adult education and training. Presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Boston, March 1995.
  • Tsang, M. (1995). Graduate studies for Chinese students in the U.S. Presented at the Conference of the Michigan Association for International Programs and Personnel, at Michigan State University, in February 1995.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Investment in education in China : 1950-1991. Presented at the Asian Studies Center, Michigan State University, on November 15, 1994.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). A skill development fund for financing human-resource development in Yemen. Presented at the National Seminar on the Management and Financing of Vocational Training, held in Sana'a, the Republic of Yemen on October 18-19, 1994.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). Policy issues in financing quality basic education for all. Paper presented at the Midwest Economics Association Conference in Chicago, on March 24-26, 1994.
  • Tsang, M. (1994). The costs of investment in education in China. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in San Diego, on March 21-23, 1994.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Financing quality basic education. Paper presented at the International Forum on Education for All, on September 8-10, 1993 in New Delhi, India. Forum was organized by UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, and World Bank.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Financial reform of basic education in China. Paper presented at the International Conference on Economics of Education held in Manchester, England, on May 18-20, 1993. Conference was sponsored by the British Council, the World Bank and the GTZ of Germany.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Skill demand indicators for Michigan. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference in Atlanta, on April 16-20, 1993.
  • Tsang, M. (1993). Model of skill demand. Paper presented at the Mid-West Economics Association Conference in Indianapolis, on April 1-3, 1993.
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Comparative perspectives on costs and financing of education. Paper presented at the Policy Seminar on Educational Finance on August 18-22, 1992, in Dalian, China.  
  • Tsang, M. (1992). Resource utilization in higher education in China. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Annapolis, MD, March 12-16.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Understanding and monitoring changes in skill demand. East Lansing, MI : Michigan Partnership for New Education.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Private financing of primary education: Lessons from Pakistan and Thailand. Paper read at the Comparative and International Education Society conference in Pittsburgh, PA, March 1991.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Cost-benefit analysis in education. Presentation sponsored by State Department of Education, State of Penang, Malaysia, July 20.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Applications of cost analysis in education. Presentation made a the Ministry of Education, Malaysia, in Kuala Lumpur, July 18.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Education, productivity, and economic development. Presentation sponsored by Islamic International University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, July 8.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Public and private resources for education. Presented at World Bank Staff Development Seminar, held at Stanford University, on June 20,1991.
  • Xiao, J., and Tsang, M. (1991). The organization and financing of adult education in China. Paper read at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Pittsburgh, PA, March 1991.
  • Tsang, M. (1991). Resource mobilization to primary education in Pakistan. East Lansing, MI : College of Education, Michigan State University.
  • Tsang, M. (1990). Private resources and school quality: The case of Thailand. Paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference in Boston in April, 1990.
  • Tsang, M. (1990). Private resources to primary education: Lessons from Thailand, Pakistan, and China. Presented at World Bank Staff Development Workshop at Stanford University, California.
  • Tsang, M., & Taoklam, W. (1990). The costs of public and private primary education in Thailand. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Los Angeles, March.
  • Tsang, M., Saki, M., & Ghafoor, A. (1990). Household expenditures and alternatives for financing primary education in Pakistan. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Los Angeles, March.
  • Tsang, M., & Wheeler, C. (1989). Local initiatives and their implications for a multi-level approach to school improvement in Thailand. Paper presented at the conference on Effective Schools in Developing Countries, sponsored by the World Bank in Washington, D.C.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). Mobilization of resources for education in China. Paper prepared for the World Bank for study of Financing Educational Developments in China.
  • Tsang, M. (1989). The costs of vocational education and training in developing countries. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Society Conference in Cambridge, MA.
  • Min, W. F., & Tsang, M. (1989). Vocational education and productivity: A case study of the Beijing General Auto Industry Company. Paper presented at the World Bank Conference on Recent Developments in Vocational Education in Washington, DC.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). Issues in the financing of education. Presentations made at the Academy of Educational Planning and Development, Ministry of Education, Islamabad, Pakistan, August 30 - September 1.
  • Min, W. F., & Tsang, M. (1988). Teachers' continuing education in China. Paper presented at the Second Annual Conference of the U.S. - China Teacher Education Consortium in Memphis, Tennessee.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). A cost perspective on school quality. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association in New Orleans.
  • Tsang, M. (1988). The impact of overeducation on worker productivity. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association in New Orleans.
  • Tsang, M. (1987). The impact of overeducation on job satisfaction and turnover. Paper presented at the conference on Current Issues in Productivity Studies in New Brunswick, New Jersey.
  • Min, W. F., & Tsang, M. (1987). Vocationalism and economic development: A case study of China. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Conference in Washington, DC.
  • Tsang, M. (1987). Cost analysis and efficiency in primary education in developing countries. Paper presented at the Comparative and International Education Conference in Washington, DC.
  • Tsang, M. (1985). Recent developments in economics of education. Paper presented at the 1985 National Workshop on Economics of Education. Beijing, China.

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