Brain images recorded by Karen Froud, Associate Professor of Speech
and Language Pathology, and her students. Explanations of images are
provided by Dr. Froud.(Click on image for enlarged view)
A rendering of scalp-recorded EEG, taken while the subject was
completing a visual processing task; superimposed on a 3-D brain model.
2. A magnetoencephalography recording of the brain's response to auditory word processing.
Another magnetoencephalography recording of the brain's response to
auditory word processing, but in the brain of an adult with
schizophrenia (so it looks very different).
Brain areas active during a semantic processing task in which several
neurotypical adults were shown words and asked to identify which were
real words from the English language and which were not. Brain activity
was measured using fMRI, and the pictures reflect group averages.
Below is a rendering of scalp-recorded EEG in a grammaticality processing task.
The circle on the left is the map of activation recorded when this
individual read grammatical sentences, and on the right we see the
activation associated with ungrammatical sentences. The larger blue area
on the right-hand map indicates a greater ELAN response to
ungrammatical than to grammatical sentences. (ELAN stands for Early Left
Anterior Negativity - a brain component that indexes early, automatic
sentence parsing; the brain can tell whether a sentence is ungrammatical
much earlier than we are able to consciously process the information
contained in a sentence). In this experiment we were contrasting the
brain responses of native speakers of Hungarian to those of native
speakers of Chinese, to see whether the native Hungarian speakers would
process morphological violations in English in the same way as each
other (because Hungarian has morphology a lot like English, whereas
Chinese does not). We found very different brain responses from the
A former students working with the Neuroscan EEG
system that we borrowed a couple of years back so that we could provide
EEG training for doctors at the pediatric hospital in Phnom Penh. A
system had been donated to the hospital, but no one there had any
expertise in its operation, so it was sitting unused. Neuroscan lent us
their system for a few weeks so that we could provide some direct
The brain response of native speakers of Chinese to grammatical and
ungrammatical English sentences. The response is characterized by a
greater LAN response to ungrammaticality. LAN stands for Left Anterior
negativity; it happens much later in the processing stream than the
ELAN, and its presence in the Chinese speakers suggests that their
processing of the same kinds of grammaticality violations was not as
automatic and rapid as for Hungarian speakers.