Altering context is not up to others;
all of us can, to a certain extent,
change the immediate
context around us –
and this starts us down
the pathway of
Michael Fullan
(2003 p. 29)



Abelman, C., & Elmore, R. (1999). When accountability knocks, will anyone answer? (CPRE
Research Report No. RR-42). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Consortium for Policy
Research in Education.

Afterschool Alliance. (2005). Afterschool for all: California’s Launch of Proposition 49.
Washington, DC: America’s Youth Policy Forum.

Alliance for Excellent Education. (2005). Teacher attrition: A costly loss to the nation and to
the states. Retrieved July 28, 2008, from

The American Heritage Dictionary (4th Edition). (2006). Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin.

Ancess, J., & Allen, D. (2006). Implementing small theme high schools in New York City:
Great intentions and great tensions. Harvard Educational Review, 76(3), 401–406.

Anderson, S. (2003). The school district role in educational change: A review of the literature.
(ICEC Working Paper #2). Toronto: International Centre for Educational Change.

Ballou, D., Goldring, E., & Liu, K. (2006). Magnet schools and student achievement.
New York: National Center for the Study of Privatization in Education.

Barnes, G., Crowe, E., & Schaefer, B. (2007). The costs of teacher turnover in five districts:
A pilot study. Washington DC: National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future.

Bathon, J., & Spradlin, T. (2007). Outcomes of the school choice and supplemental educational
services provisions of NCLB. Education Policy Brief, 5(8), 1–15.

Bidwell, C. (1965). The school as a formal organization. In J. March (Ed.), Handbook of
research on organizations, (pp. 972–1019). New York: Rand McNally.

Bodilly, S. (1998). Lessons from New American Schools’ scale-up phase: Prospects for bringing
designs to multiple schools. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Brewer, J. & Smith, J. (2007). Evaluating the “crazy quilt”: Educational governance in California.
Stanford, CA: Institute for Research, Policy, and Practice.

Bryk, A., Sebring, P. B., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S., & Easton, J. (1998). Charting Chicago school
reform: Democratic localism as a lever for change. Boulder, CO: Westview Books.

Bryk, A., & Schneider, B.(2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York:
Russell Sage Foundation.

Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Projections data. Retrieved August 20, 2008, from

California Department of Education. (2008a). Budget crisis report card. Retrieved
August 23, 2008 from

California Department of Education. (2008b). California beginning teacher support
and assessment. Retrieved on August 27, 2008 from

California Educational Demographics Unit. (2006). State-wide enrollment by ethnicity,
Retrieved December 2, 2008, from

California Educational Demographics Unit. (2008). Time-series—Public school enrollment.
Retrieved September 2, 2008 from

California Legislative Analysts Office. (2001). A new blueprint for California school facility finance. Sacramento, CA: Legislative Analyst’s Office.

California Legislative Analysts Office. (2008). Analysis of the 2008-09 budget bill: Education.
Retrieved December 2, 2008, from

Calkins, A., Guenther, W., Belfiore, G., & Lash, D. (2007). The turnaround challenge: Why
America’s best opportunity to dramatically improve student achievement lies in our
worst-performing schools. Boston: Mass Insight Education and Research Institute.

Carnoy, M., Adamson, F., Chudgar, A., Luschei, T., & Witte, J. (2007). Vouchers and public
school performance: A case study of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program. Washington,
DC: Economic Policy Institute.

Carroll, S., Krop, C., Arkes, J., Morrison, P., & Flanagan, A. (2005). California’s K–12 public
schools: How are they doing? Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation.

Clark, B. (1970). The distinctive college: Antioch, Reed and Swarthmore. Chicago: Aldine.

Cohen, D. (1995). What is the system in systemic reform?
Educational Researcher, 24(9), 11–17, 31.

Cohen, D., & Ball, D. (1999). Instruction, capacity, and improvement. Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania, Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

Cohen, D., & Hill, H. (2001). Learning policy: When state education reform works.
New Haven: Yale University Press.

Collins, A., Brown, J. S., & Newman, S. (1989). Cognitive apprenticeship: Teaching the
craft of reading, writing and mathematics. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), Knowing learning and
instructions: Essays in honor of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Collins, J. (2001). Good to great: Why some companies make the leap and others don’t. New York: HarperBusiness.

Collins, J. (2005). Good to great and the social sectors: Why business thinking is not the answer.
Boulder, CO: Author.

Corcoran, T. (2007). Teaching matters: How state and local policy makers can improve the
quality of teachers and teaching (CPRE Policy Briefs, No. RB-48). Philadelphia:
University of Pennsylvania, Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

Damon, W. (1990). The moral child: Nurturing children’s natural moral growth.
New York: Free Press.

Darling-Hammond, L., Hightower, A., Husbands, J., LaFors, J., Young, V. & Christopher, C. (2005).
Instructional leadership for systemic change: The story of San Diego’s reform. Lanham,
MD: Scarecrow Education Press.

Datnow, A., Hubbard, L. & Mehan, H., (2002). Extending educational reform: From one
school to many. London: Routledge/Falmer.

DeArmond, M., Gross, B., & Goldhaber, D. (2008). Is it better to be good or lucky?
CRPE working paper # 2008-3. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from

Desimone, L., Porter, A., Garet, M., Yoon, K., & Birman, B. (2002). Effects of professional
development on teachers’ instruction: Results from a three-year longitudinal Study.
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2), 81–112.

Ed-Data. (2004). Understanding California’s Student Testing and Reporting Program (STAR).
Retrieved July 15, 2006, from

Ed-Data. (2008). State of California education profile: Fiscal year 2006-2007.
Retrieved December 2, 2008, from

EdSource. (2004). How California ranks: A look at the state’s investment in K–12
education over the past decade. Retrieved December 2, 2008, 2006, from

EdSource. (2008a). Accountability overview. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from

EdSource. (2008b) Assessment overview. Retrieved December 2, 2008,

Elmore, R. (1990). Restructuring schools: The next generation of educational reform.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Elmore, R. (2000). Building a new structure for school leadership.
Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.

Elmore, R. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement:
The imperative for professional development in education.
Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.

Elmore, R. (2006). The problem of capacity in the (re)design of educational
accountability systems. Paper presented at the annual conference of the
Campaign for Educational Equity, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York.

Elmore, R., & Birney, D. (1997). Investing in teacher learning. Washington, DC:
National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future.

Fine, M. (1993). [Ap]parent involvement: Reflections on parents,
power and urban public schools. Teachers College Record, 94, 682–710.

Flynn, D. (2008). Patriots beat: Proven draft strategy.
The Milford Daily News. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from

Fuhrman, S. (Ed.) (1990a). Designing coherent education policy.
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fuhrman, S. (1990b). The new accountability. (CPRE Policy Briefs, No. RB-27.) Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

Fuhrman, S. (1993). The Politics of Coherence. In S. Fuhrman (Ed.) Designing coherent education policy: Improving the system (pp. 1–34). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: Falmer Press.

Fullan, M. (1999). Change forces: The sequel. London: Falmer Press.

Fullan, M. (2003). Change forces with a vengeance. New York: Routledge & Falmer Press.

Fuller, B. (2003). Education policy under cultural pluralism. Educational Researcher, 32(9), 15–24.

Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (1995). Leading minds: An anatomy of leadership. New York: Basic Books.

Gardner, H. (Ed.). (2007). Responsibility at work: How leading professionals act (or don’t act) responsibly. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Gardner, H., Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Damon, W. (2002). Good work: When excellence and ethics meet. New York: Basic Books.

Gogoi, P. (2005). Wal-Mart’s China card. BusinessWeek. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can be more important than IQ. New York: Bantam Books.

Goodlad, J. (1994). Educational renewal, better teachers, better schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Goodnough, A. (2001). Ad campaign to recruit teachers draws fire. New York Times. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from

Hargreaves, A. (2000). Changing teachers, changing times: Teachers’ work and culture in the postmodern age. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.

Hargreaves, A., & Fink, D. (2004). The seven principles of sustainable leadership. Educational Leadership, 61(7), 8–13.

Hargreaves, A., & Fullan, M. (1998). What’s worth fighting for out there? New York: Teachers College Press.
Harris, A. (2008). Distributed leadership in schools: Developing the leaders of tomorrow. London: Routledge & Falmer Press.

Hassel, B., & Steiner, L. (2004). Stimulating the supply of new choices for families in light of NCLB: The role of the state. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

Hatch, T. (1998a). The differences in theory that matter in the practice of school improvement. American Educational Research Journal, 35(1), 3–31.

Hatch, T. (1998b). How community action contributes to achievement. Educational Leadership, 55(8), 16–19.

Hatch, T. (2001a). Incoherence in the system: Three perspectives on the implementation of multiple improvement initiatives in one district. American Journal of Education, 109(4), 107–137.

Hatch, T. (2001b). It takes capacity to build capacity. Education Week, 20 (22), 44, 47.

Hatch, T. (2001c). What does it take to break the mold? Teachers College Record, 102(3), 561–589.

Hatch, T. (2002). When improvement programs collide. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(8), 626–634.

Hatch, T. (2006). Into the classroom: Developing the scholarship of teaching and learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hatch, T., & White, N. (2002). The raw materials of reform: Rethinking the knowledge of school improvement. Journal of Educational Change, 3(2), 117–134.

Hess, F. (1999). Spinning wheels: The politics of urban school reform. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Hess, F. (Ed.). (2005). Urban school reform: Lessons from San Diego. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hess, F. (2006). Educational entrepreneurship: realities, challenges, possibilities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Hightower, A. (2002). San Diego’s big boom: Systemic instructional change in the central office and schools. In A. Hightower, M. Knapp, J. Marsh, & M. McLaughlin (Eds.), School districts and instructional renewal (pp. 76–93). New York: Teachers College Press.

Hightower, A., Knapp, M., Marsh, J., & McLaughlin, M. (2002). School districts and instructional renewal. New York: Teachers College Press.

Hill, P. (2005). The supply side of choice. Journal of Education, 186(2), 9–25.

Hill, P., & Celio, M. (1998). Fixing urban schools. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Hirschman, A. O. (1970). Exit, voice, and loyalty: Responses to decline in firms, organizations, and states. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Honig, M. (2007, April). No small thing: School district central office bureaucracies and the implementation of new small autonomous schools initiatives. Paper presented at the annual conference of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago.

Honig, M., & Hatch, T. (2004). Crafting coherence: How schools strategically manage multiple external demands. Educational Researcher, 33(8), 16–30.

Huffman, T. (2003). Wal-Mart in China: Challenges facing a foreign retailers supply chain. China Business Review. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from–mart.html

Ingersoll, R. (2003a). Is there really a teacher shortage? Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Center for the Study of Teaching and Research.

Ingersoll, R. (2003b). Why do high-poverty schools have difficulty staffing their classrooms with qualified teachers? Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

Institute of Education Sciences. (2008). What works clearinghouse. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved December 2, 2008, from

Jennings, J. (2008). The social structure of competition in the urban educational marketplace. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association, Boston, MA.

Kahne, J., Sporte, S., de la Torre, M., & Easton, J. (2008). Small high schools on a larger scale: The impact of school conversions in Chicago. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(3), 281–315.

Kanter, R. (2004). Confidence: How winning streaks and losing streaks begin and end. New York: Crown Business.

Kreader, J. (2005) Introduction to child-care subsidy research. New York: Child Care & Early Education Research Connections. Retrieved July 20, 2008, from

Lange, C., & Sletten, S. (2002). Alternative education: A brief history and research synthesis. Alexandria, VA: Project Forum, National Association of State Directors of Special Education.

Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated cognition: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lawler, E. (1986). High-involvement management. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Leithwood, K., & Menzies, T. (1998). Forms and effects of school-based management: A review. Educational Policy, 12(3), 325–347.

Lips, D. (2008). School choice: Policy developments and national participation estimates in 2007–2008. Backgrounder #2102. Retrieved October 13, 2008 from

Little, J. W. (1990). The persistence of privacy: Autonomy and initiative in teachers’ professional relations. Teachers College Record, 91(4), 509–536.

Little, J. W. (1996). The emotional contours and career trajectories of (disappointed) reform enthusiasts. Cambridge Journal of Education 26(3), 345–359.

Loeb, S., Bryk, T., & Hanushek, E. (2007). Getting down to facts: School finance and governance in California. Stanford, CA: Institute for Research, Policy, and Practice. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from

Lortie, D. (1977). Schoolteacher. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Louis, S. K., & Kruse, S. (1995). Professionalism and community perspectives on reforming urban schools. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Lui, E., & Johnson, S. M. (2006). New teachers’ experiences of hiring: Late, rushed, and information-poor. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 324–360.

Malen, B., Croninger, R., Muncey, D., & Redmond-Jones, D., (2002). Reconstituting schools: “Testing” the “theory of action.” Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24(2), 113–132.

Malen, B., & King Rice, J. (2004). A framework for assessing the impact of education reforms on school capacity: Insights from studies of high-stakes accountability initiatives. Educational Policy, 18(5), 631–660.

March, J. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87.

Marsh, J. (2000). Connecting districts to the policy dialogue: A review of literature on the relationship of districts with states, schools, and communities. Seattle: University of Washington, Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy.

McDonald, J. (1996). Redesigning school. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

McDonald, J., Mohr, N., Dichter, A., & McDonald, E. (2007). The power of protocols: An educator’s guide to better practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

McLaughlin, M. (1990). The Rand Change Agent Study Revisited: Macro Perspectives and Micro Realities. Educational Researcher, 19 (9), 11–16.

McLaughlin, M., & Talbert J. (2001). Professional communities and the work of high school teaching. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. (2007). Retrieved October 31, 2008,

Metz, M. (1990). Real school: A universal drama amid disparate experience. In D. Mitchell & M. Goertz (Eds.), Education politics for the new century: 20th anniversary yearbook of the politics of education association (pp. 75–91). Philadelphia: Falmer Press.

Meyer, J., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.

Mintrop, H. (2003). The limits of sanctions in low-performing schools: A study of Maryland and Kentucky schools on probation. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(3). Retrieved July 23, 2008 from

Murphy, J. (1991). Restructuring schools: Capturing and assessing the phenomena. New York: Teachers College Press.

Murphy, J., & Beck, L. (1995). School-based management as school reform: Taking stock. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

National Center for Education Statistics (1999). Condition of America’s public school facilities. Washington, DC: Institute of Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved December 2, 2008 from

National Center for Education Statistics. (2007). Digest of education statistics: 2007. Washington, DC: Institute of Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved October 13, 2008, from

National Center for Education Statistics. (2008). Participation in education: Elementary and secondary education: Racial/ethnic distribution of public school students. Washington, DC: Institute of Educational Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States: 2000–01 (NCES No. 202-351). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. (2008). [School construction data.] Retrieved July 17, 2008, from

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition (2005). ELL demographics by state. Retrieved on July 17, 2008, from

National Commission on Excellence in Education. (1983). A nation at risk: The imperative for educational reform. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Working Commission on Choice in K–12 Education. (2003). School choice: Doing it the right way makes a difference. Washington, DC: Brown Center on Education Policy, Brookings Institution.

Newmann, F. M., King, M. B., & Youngs, P. (2000). Professional development that addresses school capacity: Lessons from urban elementary schools. American Journal of Education, 108(4), 259–299.

Newmann, F., Smith, B., Allensworth, E., & Bryk, T. (2001). Instructional program coherence: What is it and why should it guide school improvement policy? Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 23(4), 297–321.

Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (2001). Catalog of school reform models. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.

O’Day, J., Goertz, M., & Floden, R. (1995). Building capacity for education reform. New Brunswick, NJ: Consortium for Policy Research in Education.

O’Day, J., & Smith, M. (1993). Systemic reform and educational opportunity. In S. H. Fuhrman (Ed.), Designing coherent education policy (pp. 250–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Perkins, D. (1992). Smart schools: From training memories to educating minds. New York: Free Press.

Perry, M., Miller, B., Carlos, L., Teague, J. & Frey, S. (2001). Aligning California’s education reforms: Progress made and the work that remains. Palo Alto, CA: Ed Source.

Perry, M. & Teague, J. (2001). Update on California’s teacher workforce issues. Palo Alto, CA: EdSource.

Popkewitz, T., Tachnick, B., & Wehlage, G. (1982). The myth of education reform. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.

Porter, M. (1998). Competitive advantage: Creating and sustaining superior performance. New York: Free Press.

Porter, M. (2000). Location, competition and economic development: Local clusters in a global economy. Economic Development Quarterly, 14(1), 15–34.

Purkey, S., & Smith, M. (1983). Effective schools: A review. The Elementary School Journal, 83(4), 427–452.

Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon & Shuster.

Ries, A., & Trout, J. (1981). Positioning: The battle for your mind. New York: Warner Books.

Rowan, B. (2002). The ecology of school improvement: Notes on the school improvement industry in the United States. Journal of Educational Change, 3, 283–314.

Rowan, B., & Miskel, C. (1999). Institutional theory and the study of educational organizations. In J. Murphy & K. S. Louis (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational administration (2nd ed., pp. 359—383). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Shields, P., Esch, C., Humphrey, D., Wechsler, M., Chang-Ross, C., Gallagher, H. A., Guha, R., et al. (2003). The status of the teaching profession 2003. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning.

Shirley, D. (2002). Valley Interfaith and school reform: Organizing for power in South Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Smith, T., & Ingersoll, R. (2004). What are the effects of mentoring and beginning teacher induction on turnover? American Educational Research Journal, 41(3), 681–714.

Smylie, M., Lazarus, V., & Brownlee-Conyers, J. (1996). Instructional outcomes of school-based participative decision-making. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 18, 181–198.

Spillane, J. (2006). Distributed leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Spillane, J., & Diamond, J. (Eds.). (2007). Distributed leadership in practice. New York: Teachers College Press.

Spillane, J., & Thompson, C. (1997). Reconstructing conceptions of local capacity: The local education agency’s capacity for amibitious instructional reform. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(2), 185–203.

Stoll, L. (1999). Realizing our potential: Understanding and developing capacity for lasting improvement. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 10(1), 1–30.

Stoll, L., & Earl, L. (2003). Making it last: Building capacity for sustainability. In B. Davies & J. West-Burnham (Eds.), Handbook of educational leadership and management (pp. 491–504). London: Pearson Education.

Stoll, L., & Louis, K. S. (2007). Professional learning communities. London: Open University Press.

Stullich, S., Eisner, E., McCrary, J., & Roney, C. (2006). National Assessment of Title I: Interim Report: Vol. I. Implementation of Title I. Washington, DC: Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Texas Center for Educational Research. (2000). The cost of teacher turnover. Austin, TX: Texas State Board for Educator Certification.

Timar, T. (2006) Financing K–12 education in California: A system overview. Stanford, CA: Institute for Research, Policy, and Practice.

Tyack, D. (1974). The one best system: A history of American urban education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tyack, D., & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

U.S. Charter Schools. (2008). National charter school data: 2007–2008 new school estimates. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

Warren, M. (2005). Communities and schools: A new view of urban education reform. Harvard Educational Review, 75(2), 133–173.

Weick, K. (1976). Educational organizations as loosely coupled systems. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, 1–19.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wilson, S. (2003). California dreaming: Reforming mathematics education. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Wilson, S. M., Bell, C., Galosy, J., & Shouse, A. (2004). “Them that’s got shall get”: Re-imaging teacher recruitment, induction, and retention. In M. A. Smylie & D. Miretzky (Eds.), Developing the teacher workforce. 103rd Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part 1 (pp. 145–179).
Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2008). Milwaukee parental choice program facts and figures for 2007–08. Retrieved August 3, 2008, from

Witte, J., & Thorn, C. (1996). Who chooses? Vouchers and interdistrict choice programs in Milwaukee. American Journal of Education, 104, 186–217.

Wohlstetter, P., Malloy, C., Smith, J., & Hentschke, G. (2004). Incentives for charter schools: Building school capacity through cross-sectoral alliances. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40 (3), 321–365.

Wohlstetter, P., & Odden, A. (1992). Rethinking school-based management policy and research. Educational Administration Quarterly, 28, 529–549.

Wohlstetter, P., Smyer, R., & Mohrman, S. A. (1994). New boundaries for school-based management: The high involvement model. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 16, 268–286