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Hansun Zhang Waring

Professional Background

Educational Background

B.A. in English Literature, Beijing University;
M/.A. in TESOL, University of Central Missouri;
Ed. M., Ed.D. in Applied Linguistics, Teachers College, Columbia University.  

Scholarly Interests

Language and social interaction:

  • Conversation analysis
  • Second language classroom discourse
  • Advice giving and receiving in pedagogical contexts
  • Interactional resources deployed to manage competing demands in various social contexts
  • Cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics

Selected Publications

  • Waring, H. Z. (2014). Managing control and connection in the language classroom. Research in the Teaching of English, 49(1), 52-74.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2014). Mentor invitation for reflection in post-observation conferences. Applied Linguistics Review, 5(1), 99-123.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2014). Turn allocation and context: Broadening participation in the second language classroom. In J. Flowerdew (Ed.), Discourse in context: Contemporary applied linguistics Volume 3 (pp. 301-320). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.
  • Waring, H. Z., Creider, C. C., & Box, C. D. (2013). Explaining vocabulary in the second language classroom: A conversation analytic account. Learning, Culture, and Social Interaction, 2, 249-264.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2013). Managing the competing voices in the language classroom. Discourse Processes, 50(5), 316-338.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2013). Managing Stacy: A case study of turn-taking in the language classroom. System, 41(3), 841-851.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2013). "How was your weekend?": Developing the interactional competence in managing routine inquiries. Language Awareness, 22(1), 1-16.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2013). Doing being playful in the language classroom. Applied Linguistics, 34, 191-210.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2013). Two mentor practices that generate teacher reflection without explicit solicitations. RELC Journal: A Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 44(1), 103-119.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2012). Yes-no questions that convey a critical stance in the language classroom. Language and Education, 26(5), 451-469
  • Waring, H. Z. (2012). "Any questions?": Investigating understanding-checks in the language classroom. TESOL Quarterly, 46(4), 722-752.
  • Waring, H. Z., Creider, S., Tarpey, T., & Black, R. (2012). Understanding the specificity of CA and context. Discourse Studies, 14(4), 477-492.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2012). The advising sequence and its preference structures in graduate peer tutoring in an American university. In H. Limberg & M. A. Locher (Eds.), Advice in discourse (pp. 97-118). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2012). Doing disaffiliation with now-prefaced utterances. Language and Communication, 32, 265-275.
  • Waring, H. Z., & Hruska, B. (2012). Problematic directives in pedagogical interaction. Linguistics and Education, 23, 289-300.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2011). Learner initiatives and learning opportunities. Classroom Discourse, 2(2), 201-218.
  • Waring, H. Z., & Hruska, B. (2011). Getting and keeping Nora on board: A novice elementary ESOL student teacher's practices for lesson engagement. Linguistics and Education, 22, 441-455.
  • Wong, J. & Waring, H. Z. (2010). Conversation analysis and second language pedagogy: A guide for ESL/EFL teachers. New York: Routledge.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2009). Moving out of IRF: A single case analysis. Language Learning, 59(4), 796-824.
  • Wong, J., & Waring, H. Z. (2009). "Very good" as a teacher response. ELT Journal, 63(3), 195-203.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2008). Using explicit positive assessment in the language classroom: IRF, feedback, and learning opportunities. The Modern Language Journal, 92(4), 577-594.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2007b). The multi-functionality of accounts in advice giving. Journal of Sociolinguistics,11(3), 367-369.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2007a). Complex advice acceptance as a resource for managing asymmetries. Text and Talk, 27(1), 107-137.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2005). Peer tutoring in a graduate writing center: Identity, expertise and advice resisting. Applied Linguistics, 26, 141-168. 
  • Waring, H. Z. (2003). "Also" as a discourse marker: Its use in disjunctive and disaffiliative environments. Discourse Studies, 5(3), 415-436.  
  • Waring, H. Z. (2002b). Expressing noncomprehension in seminar discussion. Journal of Pragmatics, 34 (12), 1711-1731.
  • Waring, H. Z. (2002a). Displaying substantive recipiency in seminar discussion. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 35(4), 453-479.

current projects

Language and Social Interaction Working Group (LANSI)

LANSI was established in Fall 2010 to bring together students and scholars in the larger metropolitan area of New York working on naturally-occurring social interaction. As a relatively new venture sponsored by The TESOL and Applied Linguistics Program here at Teachers College, Columbia University, LANSI pursues two goals:

(1) create a space for analytical workouts: for the past four years, we have been hosting monthly data sessions, where students and professors work side by side as colleagues towards the common goal of becoming better analysts (If you’re interested in joining us, check our website at for schedules and locations); 

(2) provide a forum for and promote dialogs among analysts who work within the various areas of language and social interaction. Through LANSI, we hope to engage in substantive conversations that would enrich our understandings--not only of our common interest, but also of each other.

doctoral dissertations sponsored

Nancy Boblett has taught ESL/EFL and Spanish for over 35 years in Spain and in the U.S. She currently teaches Classroom Practices and Practicum I in the TESOL/AL M.A. program at Teachers College, Columbia University. In addition, she teaches Academic Language and Culture for the Office of International Services at TC and gives workshops on Speaking, Intelligibility, Listening, and Building Fluency at Baruch College (CUNY). At present, Nancy is pursuing Ed.D. studies at Teachers College and her areas of interest include teacher education, teacher expertise, and classroom discourse.

Catherine Box is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research focuses on talk in educational settings, particularly in multilingual, cross-cultural contexts. A central tenet of her work is the conversation analytic framework to study naturally-occurring unfolding interaction between teachers and students, and between teacher trainers and pre-service teachers. She is an adjunct instructor and a student teaching supervisor at Teachers College. She is the co-editor of Talk in Institutions: A LANSI Volume (2014, Cambridge Scholars Press), and her work has been published in Learning & Individual Differences, Journal of Applied Linguistics & Professional Practice, Applied Linguistics Review, and Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics.

Sarah Creider is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her interests include conversation analysis, institutional discourse, teacher-student interaction, and teacher training. Her current research focuses on multi-modal analyses of teacher-student interactions, and on how teachers encourage student participation without asking questions. Sarah has taught English as a second language in Europe and the US and specializes in curriculum and methods for adults with limited first language literacy. She is an adjunct instructor at Teachers College and Hunter College. Sarah's work (single-authored or co-authored) has been published in the Journal of Contemporary Foreign Language Studies; Learning, Culture, & Social Interaction; Discourse Studies; Language and Information Society; and Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics. A co-authored article will appear later this year in the Journal of Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice.

Domenica (Donna) Luvera DelPrete holds an Ed.M. from Teachers College, Columbia University (2008) in Applied Linguistics and an M.A. in Italian Literature from Boston College (1992). She is presently an Ed.D. / (ABD) student in Applied Linguistics specializing in discourse analysis and writing a doctoral dissertation of family talk. Specifically, her dissertation work is a case study that examines the discursive interaction between a mother and her adolescent daughter. While she is working within an interactional sociolinguistic theoretical framework, her analysis is also quite informed by conversation analysis methods. She has presented her work at AAAL (Portland, 2014), as well as written forum articles in the AL/TESOL web journal. Other research interests include pragmatics and its connection to second language learning. She has addressed this topic at several workshops at William Paterson University's annual Bilingual/Bicultural Conference.

Rong Rong Le is a doctoral student in TESOL at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her interests include cross-cultural and interlanguage pragmatics, discourse and social interaction. Her current research focuses on pragmatic structure and interactional patterns of compliment event in multi-party natural spontaneous conversation. Rong Rong has taught English at East China Normal University. She has also been a pioneer of Chinese teaching in the US secondary schools, created curriculum and materials from beginning to advanced levels. Her research on learner characteristics and teaching methodology "East Meets West – Teaching Eastern Language to Western Learners in a Western Environment" was featured at the Northeast Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Her co-authored college English textbook series “Step By Step – A Comprehensive Listening Course” has been awarded the “Most Popular Textbook Award” and the “First Prize of Outstanding Textbooks of High Education” by Ministry of Education of China. She has served on College Board Chinese SAT II Test Development Committee for four consecutive years.

Carol Lo is in the EDD program in Applied Linguistics at TC, specializing in language use. Carol has been working in the ESL profession since 2007 and has taught teenagers and adults abroad and in the US. She is currently an Adjunct Instructor at the American Language Program at Columbia, teaching international students academic English. Her research interests include L1/L2 interaction, classroom discourse, and best practices for ESL tutoring in writing center. She earned her bachelor's degree from The University of Hong Kong, her master's degree in Applied Linguistics from Teachers College, Columbia University and completed a TESOL Certificate at The University of Queensland, Australia.

Elizabeth Reddington is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics at Teachers College, where she also earned her M.A. A former Fulbright fellow, Elizabeth has taught English to speakers of other languages in higher education settings in the U.S. and Poland. At TC, she has taught pedagogical grammar for teachers-in-training through the TESOL Certificate Program as well as a writing course for students in the M.A. program in Applied Linguistics and TESOL. She is particularly interested in applying conversation analysis to the study of classroom discourse to gain insight into relationships between teacher talk, student participation, and the creation of opportunities for language learning. She has co-authored an article on humor in the L2 classroom for HUMOR: International Journal of Humor Research (in press) and a report on a writing center initiative at a Polish university for the Journal of Second Language Writing. Her work has also appeared in Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics.

Gahye Song is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests include the relationship between grammar and interactional patterns and second language socialization in/outside of classrooms, using the methodological framework of conversation analysis. She is currently teaching advanced Korean at Columbia University and has taught ESL/EFL in the United States and South Korea. Her work on membership categorization analysis appeared in Working Papers in TESOL & Applied Linguistics. She has also co-authored 3 EFL textbooks and accompanying teacher's guides (grades 7 to 9) published in South Korea (Reading Engine 1, 2, and 3, 2014). She received her B.A. from McGill University and her M.A. and Ed.M. from Teachers College, Columbia University.

Nadja Tadic is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests include classroom interaction, critical pedagogy, and combing the conversation analytic and critical discourse analytic frameworks to uncover ways of maximizing learning. She is particularly interested in identifying interactional patterns that can help increase at risk students' participation, learning, and achievement. Currently, Nadja is a Fellow in the Community Language Program where she strives to incorporate L2 classroom interaction and critical pedagogy research findings into her teaching of ESL to adult learners.

Junko Takahashi is a doctoral student in the Applied Linguistics program at Teachers College, Columbia University. Her research interests include discourse analysis, conversation analysis, and sociolinguistics, particularly pertaining to Asian students' interactional pattern in the English classrooms. She has taught ESL and Japanese at St. Peter's College and New Jersey City University. Her commentary "Culture as Context" for the forum "Text and Context: The Role of Context in Discourse Analysis" appeared on the TC TESOL/AL Web Journal (2010). She is also an education writer for Japanese newspapers and is a published author of an education book for Japanese families "America chuzai: Korede anshin kodomo no kyoiku navi" (2008) and a contributing writer of "Living in English-Speaking Countries" (2011).

Di Yu is a doctoral student in Applied Linguistics at Teachers College, Columbia University. She received her M.A. in TESOL and Ed.M. in Applied Linguistics from Teachers College as well. Her research interests include media discourse, political discourse, humor, and the use of multimodal resources in interaction. Di has presented her research at conferences such as AAAL, ISHS, and AILA. Currently she is a Tech Fellow at Teachers College and also a member of the AAAL Graduate Student Committee.

A&HL 4001: Sociolinguistics and education

This course looks at language variation based on social class, race, ethnicity, age, and gender; cross-cultural pragmatics, interactional sociolinguistics, code-switching, language planning, and World Englishes. Pedagogical implications. Special fee: $15.


A&HL 4104: Discourse analysis

Prerequisite: A&HL 4085. Introduction to spoken and written discourse analysis with an overview of various approaches. Development of transcription skills with application of teaching and research. Special fee: $15.

A&HL 4105: Conversation analysis

This course offers a general introduction to conversation analysis (CA) by considering CA's methodological principles and analytical concepts along with its wealth of classic findings on spoken interaction. Through an in-depth look into exemplary studies as well as a series of data sessions, the course also provides basic training in conducting CA analysis. Special fee: $15.


A&HL 5105: Classroom discourse

This course offers a general introduction to the study of classroom discourse. Through critical reading analyses of a body of classic and current work, students will become familiar with how systematic analyses of classroom interaction are conducted in a variety of classroom contexts. The goal is to cultivate an appreciation for the major findings in the study of classroom discourse and to develop an ability to perform disciplined analyses of such interaction. Special fee: $15.

A&HL 6031: Advanced conversation analysis

This course is designed to help students pursue further interests in CA as a methodology as well as its vast body of findings on language and social interaction . Aside from considering the various methodological issues related to CA, three main themes will be explored: (1) turn-taking and sequencing beyond the basics; (2) tacit practices in interaction (gesture, prosody, and discourse markers in interaction; cf. contextualization cues); (3) membership categorization device (MCD). The class will be conducted in a format that combines lectures, critical readings analyses, and data sessions. Special fee: $15.

A&HL 6207: Advanced fieldwork in applied linguistics and TESOL

Permission of instructor required. Opportunity for qualified students, individually or in small groups, to develop and pursue projects, in consultation with an advisor, in schools, communities, and other field settings. Course may be taken more than once. Special fee: $15.

A&HL 6507: Doctoral seminar in applied linguistics and TESOL

Special fee: $15.

A&HL 7507: Dissertation seminar in applied linguistics and TESOL

Special fee: $15.

Hansun Zhang Waring appeared in the following articles:

Strage Prize 2014: Professor Hansun Waring (11/21/2014)

Everything Communicates (1/21/2014)

NEW FACULTY (5/11/2011)