Section Navigation

Robert T. Carter

Professional Background

Educational Background

Licensed Psychologist
University of the State of New York, 1991.
Ph.D., Counseling Psychology, University of Maryland (APA approved), 1987.
Ed.M., Psychological Counseling, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1981.
M.A., Psychological Counseling and Rehabilitation, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1980.
B.A., Psychology, Columbia University, 1977.

Scholarly Interests

Selected Publications

Carter, R. T., & Forsyth, J., (2010). Reactions to racial discrimination: Emotional stress and help-seeking behavior. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 2(3), 183-191.  
Pieterse, A.L., & Carter, R.T (2010).  A exploratory investigation of the relationship between racism, racial identity, perception of health, and health locus of control among Black American women. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Undeserved, 21 (1), 334-348.
Pieterse, A.L., & Carter, R.T (2010).  The role of racial identity in perceived racism and psychological stress among Black American Adults: Exploring traditional and alternative approaches. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 (5), 1028-1053.
Carter, R. T., & Forsyth, J., (2009). A guide to the forensic assessment  of race - based traumatic stress reactions. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37 (1), 28-40.      
Carter, R. T., & Helms, J. E. (2009). Racism and race-based traumatic stress: toward new legal and clinical standards.  Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 9 (5), 113-129.
Carter, R. T., Buckley, T.R., & Hall, S. (2008) Racial harassment in American schools (pp. ) In H. Coleman and C. Yeh (Eds.). Handbook of School Counseling Hillsdale, NJ:Lawrence Erlbaum.
Carter, R.T. Pieterse A.L., & Smith, S. (2008). Racial identity status profiles and expressions of anger in Black Americans: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development , 36(2), 101-112. 
Carter, R. T. (2007). Clarification and purpose of the race-based traumatic stress model: A Rejoinder. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 101-110.
Carter, R. T. (2007). Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13-105.
Carter, R. T., & Forsyth, J., (2007) The examination of race and culture in psychology journals: The case of forensic psychology Professional Psychology Research and Practice, 38(2),133-142.
Carter, R. T., Forsyth, J., William, B., & Mazzula, S. (2007). Does racism predict psychological harm or injury: Mental health and legal implication. Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 7(5), 129-154.
Carter, R. T. (2006) Race-based traumatic stress. Psychiatric Times, 23(14), 37-38.
Carter, R. T., Forsyth, J. M., Mazzula, S. L., & Williams, B. (2005). Racial discrimination and race-based traumatic stress: An exploratory investigation In R. T. Carter, (Ed). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2)(pp. 447-476)/ Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Carter, R.T. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Theory and research (Vol. 1). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Carter, R.T. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice and (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Wallace, B. C. and Carter, R.T. (Eds.). (2003). Understanding and dealing with violence: A multicultural approach.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.  

Third volume in the Roundtable Series on Multicultural Psychology and Education

Carter, R. T. (Ed.). (2000). Addressing cultural issues in organizations: Beyond the corporate context.  Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Carter, R.T. (2005). Uprooting inequity and disparities in counseling and psychology: An introduction   In R. T.Carter,   (Ed.). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Theory and research (Vol. 1) (pp. xv-xxviii ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Carter, R.T & Pieterse, A.L. (2005). Race: A social and psychological analysis of the term and its meaning     In R. T., Carter,   (Ed.). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Theory and research (Vol. 1) (pp.41-63). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Carter, R.T., Pieterse, A. L., & Williams B. (2005). The decline of White racial-cultural dominance in counseling and psychology: A summary and reflections on the impact of multiple perspectives   In R. T.Carter,   (Ed.). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Theory and research (Vol. 1) (pp. 414-422). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Carter, R.T. (2005). A cultural-historical model for understanding racial-cultural competence and confronting dynamic cultural conflicts: An Introduction   In R. T. Carter,  (Ed.). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2) (pp. ix-xxvi ). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Carter, R.T. (2005). Teaching racial-cultural counseling competence: A racially inclusive model   In R. T. Carter,  (Ed.). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2) (pp. 36-56). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Hoffman, M.A. & Carter, R.T. (2004) Counseling psychology and school counseling: A call to collaboration. The Counseling Psychologist, 32(2),  181-183.

Yeh, C. Y., Carter, R. T., & Pieterse, A. L. (2004). Cultural values and racial identity attitudes among Asian American students: An exploratory investigation, Counseling and Values, 48, 2, 82-95.

Carter, R. T., Helms, J. E., Juby, H. L. (2004).  The relationship between racism and racial identity for White Americans: A profile analysis.  Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development.32, 2-17.

Buckley, T. R. & Carter, R. T. (2004).  Biracial (Black/White) Women: A qualitative study of racial attitudes and beliefs and their implications for therapy.  Women and Therapy, 27(1/2), 45-64.

professional experiences

Ira Glasser Racial Justice Fellow - American Civil Liberties Union, 2004-2005.


Disaster Mental Health Research Mentoring Program - National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder/Dartmouth University, Participant for 2004-2005. 

Private Clinical Practice, 1991-1996. Individual, couples, and families.


Private Consulting Practice, 1996-present. Organizational and legal consulting.

Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology as of Fall, 1996 (formerly Department of Social, Organizational and Counseling Psychology), Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Department Chair, 1999-2001.
Counseling Program Director and Director of Training, 1999-2002.

Faculty Member; Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, 1994-present.

Professor of Psychology and Education, 1998-present

Associate Professor of Psychology and Education, 1991-1998.
Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education, 1989-1991. Research and teaching at graduate and doctoral level.


Teachers College Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education (formerly Counseling and Psychotherapy): Annual National Conference, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Conference Director, 1989- 2003.

Institute of Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Research Associate,1991-2003. 

Member of advisory committee (1997-2000)


Florence R. Kluckhohn Center for the Study of Values, Bellingham, WA

Associate Scholar, 1993- 2002.

The center for the study of values is dedicated to promoting the Kluckhohn method for empirically investigating Cultural Values. The center is comprised of a group of International scholars from numerous disciplines who all use in various ways the Kluckhohn method. I was appointed an associate scholar for my work in developing the Intercultural Values Inventory, a measure designed to assess the value-orientations model developed by F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck.

Baruch College, City University of New York, New York, NY.

Staff Psychologist, January 1990-May 1991

Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.

Assistant Professor, 8/87-8/89.

Taught undergraduate and graduate courses in counseling psychology curriculum. Conducted research projects on career counseling, cross-cultural psychology, organizational psychology, and personality. Trained doctoral students in clinical/counseling practice. Taught graduate level basic psychotherapy, cross-cultural counseling, psychotherapy practicum and adult development; undergraduate courses introduction to personality theory, research, and applications & organizational behavior.

Counseling Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.

Associate Counseling Psychologist.

Supervised doctoral students, conducted therapy groups and individual psychotherapy.

Counseling Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Psychology Intern, (APA approved) 7/86-6/87.

Conducted individual psychotherapy, ran structured theme oriented and therapy groups, engaged in campus and resident life consultation, and supervised practicum students. Administered psychodiagnostic testing-weekly rotation-learning assistance service, collaborated on applied research project for administrative purposes. Conducted mini-presentations in actual classrooms on theme oriented topics (e.g., time management). Participated in intern and senior staff case conferences and in intern clinical seminar as well as full staff educational-vocational counseling seminar.

Counseling Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Research Assistant, 1983-1986.

Collected data, wrote research proposals and reports. Also worked for Division of Student Affairs on Maryland Longitudinal Study, a five-year study of over 700 freshmen who entered the University of Maryland in the fall of 1980. Assisted in content analyses and coding of interview data.

Counselor, 1984-1986.

Contracted to perform intensive therapy for clients on waiting list, worked with five clients twice weekly who presented personal and vocational issues.

George Mason University, Minority Student Service, Fairfax, VA.

Counselor, Summer, 1985.

Conducted six-week Transition Program for incoming Black students. Focused on studentship skills, interpersonal communication and assertiveness training.

Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Teaching Assistant, 1981-1984.

Lectured on Counseling Theory and Psychopathology; Sexual dysfunction and Substance abuse. Assisted professors with grading papers and exams. Administered exams, supervised undergraduate TA's and assisted students in development of counseling skills. Responsible for 150 students (five discussion sections).

Department of Psychology, La Guardia Community College, Queens, NY.

Adjunct Instructor, January-May 1981.

Taught course on Black Psychology.

Malcolm-King College Extension, New York, NY.

Instructor, January-May, 1981.

Taught course in General Psychology.

Federation Employment and Guidance Services/City of New York Crisis Intervention Services, New York, NY.

Psychiatric Rehabilitation Counselor, 1979-1981.

Trained as New York State Community Support System Case Manager. Provided direct outreach to deinstitutionalized psychiatric patients and functionally disabled clients. Provided supportive psychotherapy, general social work, and medical follow-up. Responsible for crisis intervention with 40+ caseload of single-room occupancy hotel population.

Mini-Institute City College, New York, NY.

Counselor, 1978-1979.

Designed, developed, and assisted in the administration of the Young Adults Work Experience Training Program. Primary responsibility: vocational and personal counseling.


North Central Opportunities Industrialization Center, Fairmont, WV.

Counselor, 1977-1978.

Oriented individual trainees to OIC program and interpreted program objectives. Provided individual and group counseling.

Director of Counseling, 2/78-9/79.

Responsible for counseling program; executed policies outlined by administration; administered and evaluated educational tests; maintained contact with related community agencies.

Morningside Area Alliance Career Planning and Counseling Center and Youth Service, New York, NY.

Program Director and Founder, 1974-1977.

Organized and planned activities for educational/vocational counseling program which served the Alliance Youth program and surrounding community.

Consultant, 1977-1980.

Worked in consultation with program directors to maintain the career center, develop grant proposals, and troubleshoot agency problems.

Harlem Youth Federation, New York City.

Executive Director, April-August, 1977.

Planned, organized, and directed comprehensive youth development program in central Harlem.

biographical information

Robert T. Carter, Ph.D. is Professor of Psychology and Education in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology at Teachers College, Columbia University. His research and scholarship focuses on issues of race and culture. He is internationally known for his work on White and Black racial identity. Dr. Carter has applied analyses of race, racial identity, and culture to psychotherapy process and outcome, legal issues, organizational development, health disparities, disaster mental health and preparedness, and educational equity. He has published more than 75 journal articles and book chapters and he has authored or edited books 7 books. His most notable works are - The influence of race and racial identity in the psychotherapy process, (1995): Wiley. - Racial identity development theory: Applications to Individual, Group and Organizations. (with Thompson, 1997):Lawrence Erlbaum. Most recently he edited the two volume reference set titled - Handbook of Racial-Cultural Psychology and Counseling: Theory and Research (Vol. 1), and Training and practice (Vol. 2) (2005), John Wiley. His most recent area of inquiry is on the stressful and potentially traumatic effects of racial discrimination. He is currently an Ira Glasser Racial Justice Fellow at the American Civil Liberties Union exploring the legal implications of racial discrimination and psychological injury. He also serves as the Editor of the American Psychological Associations' Society of Counseling Psychology Journal "The Counseling Psychologist" He is a fellow in the American Psychological Association (divisions 17 and 45) and has received several national awards. He also works as an expert witness, legal and organizational consultant.

professional presentations

Carter, R. T. (November, 2005). Race-based Traumatic Stress Injury: Assessment and recognition. Keynote Address presented at the HBCU Counseling Center, Third Annual Conference on the Mental Health of Black College Students, Baltimore, MD.

Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Racial Identity in Psychotherapy Process and Outcome: Case Applications. The First Annual Evelyn Lee Visiting Scholar on Cultural Competence and Diversity: Case Conference, University of California San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA.

Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Race and Racial identity in Psychotherapy: Practical Applications. The First Annual Evelyn Lee Visiting Scholar on Cultural Competence and Diversity: Keynote Lecture, University of California San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, San Francisco, CA.

Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Racial Cultural Factors and Aspects of Disasters as Predictors of Racial Minorities Mental Health. Presented at the Research and Education Disaster Mental Health Conference, Dartmouth Medical School and the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Boston, MA.

Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress Injury. Invited Workshop given at the Diversity Challenge Conference, making ace and Culture Work in the World of Work, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA.

Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). An Introduction to Racial Identity Theory: Exploring a New Approach to Service Provision. A keynote address delivered at the National Black and Minority Health Network Conference: Turning the Tide, Manchester England.

Carter, R. T. (August, 2005). How to Get Published in The Counseling Psychologist. The American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.

Carter, R. T. (April, 2005). Publishing in The Counseling Psychologist. Invited Presentation Panel of Journal Editors. The American Counseling Association, Atlanta, GA.

Carter, R. T. (February, 2004)Does Racism Cause Psychological and Emotional Injury. Invited Helms Award lecture given at the Teachers College, Winter Roundtable Conference on Cultural Psychology and Education, New York, NY.

Carter, R.T. (March, 2004). How to get published in The Counseling Psychologist Invited Presentation.  the American Counseling Association. Kansas City, Mo

Carter, R. T. (April, 2004). More than a pound of cure, an ounce of prevention -
Core constructs for reducing mental health disparities
  Invited Presentation. Yale University Consultation Center Conference On Equity, Access and Outcome:

The Role of Prevention Science In Reducing Heath Disparities, New Haven, CT.

Carter, R. T. (May, 2004)Competent Crisis Response: Considering Culture and Race. Invited Training Session.  University of Connecticut s Center for Trauma Response, Recovery and Preparedness and the State Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services/ Department of Children and families, Farmington, CT.

Carter, R. T. (Chair and Presenter). (August, 2004). Deconstructing racial discrimination: The intersection of psychology and the law  Symposium with J. Forsyth, S. Mazzula,  & B. Williams, conducted at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Carter, R.T. (August, 2004). How to get published in The Counseling Psychologist Presentation at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Carter, R. T. (August, 2004). The benefits and costs of teaching about race and culture.  Symposium on confronting resistance and maintaining resilience in multicultural teaching, research and practice - by division 17 section on Ethnic and Racial Diversity) with J. Trimble and M. Vasquez. Invited presentation at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Carter, R. T. (August, 2004). Developing cultural competency in mental health organizations and programs. Panel chaired by Arthur Evans; Toward an empirical framework for cultural competence - by division 18, presentation at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.

useful web sites

honors and awards

Sage Publication Award - For Editorial Leadership  (August, 2005).
An award presented at the American Psychological Association Convention - For "his contribution to making The Counseling Psychologist the second highest ranked journal in applied psychology in citation impact".

Disaster Mental Health Researcher  (June, 2004).
Selected to be mentored as a disaster mental health researcher in a program funded by the National Institute of Mental Health.  Administered by Dartmouth Medical School and the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to increase the quality and utility of disaster mental health research. Only four people who show aptitude for careers in disaster research will be selected for the program each year. I was selected as one of the four for the start up year of the program. I received a small grant for travel and professional development.

American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Ira Glasser Racial Justice Fellow 2004-2005  The fellowship is designed to address enduring racial inequalities, including social and economic inequalities caused by historical and current discrimination, the Fellows program provides support for individuals whose work will advance the ACLU's longstanding commitment to racial justice.  I have been selected as one of three at-large (national) fellows to conduct research and scholarship that will be used to promote the organization's racial justice agenda. My work will focus on the use of psychological models such as racial identity to legal decision-making and court outcomes. The fellowship project is entitled "Integrating psychological models and research on race and trauma with legal policy and litigation".

Sage Publication Award -For editorial Leadership (2004, August).
 An award Presented at the APA convention - For "his contribution to making The Counseling Psychologist the sixth mostly highly ranked journal in applied

Janet E. Helms Award For Mentoring and Scholarship in Psychology and Education Teachers College, Columbia University (2004, February). - Given in recognition for national leadership in scholarship on racism and racial identity theory and research. Also for mentorship and for the innovation design of the Racial-Cultural Counseling Laboratory, an experiential training model that encourages students and professionals to explore their cultural identities.

Distinguished Service Award  Teachers College, Columbia University (2003, February) - Given in recognition of outstanding service to the Winter Roundtable on Cultural Psychology and Education

Multicultural Research Award,  Given by the National Association of Multicultural Educators. (2001, November.) For recognition for outstanding and meaningful research contributions to education.

First Annual James M. Jones Career Achievement Award (Division 45), American Psychological Association. (2000, August).

Diplomate of the American Board of Psychology Specialties: Forensic Psychology (1999)

Fellow in the Division of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) of the American Psychological Association. (1997). Awarded by the American Psychological Association in recognition of outstanding and unusual contributions to the science and profession of psychology.

Fellow in the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 45) of the American Psychological Association. (1997). Awarded by the American Psychological Association in recognition of outstanding and contributions to the advancement of ethnic minority issues in psychology.

Promising Minority Researcher. (1989). Selected by the National Institute of Mental Health, Technical Assistance Program.

Patricia Harris Fellow. (1983-1986). University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

Minority Fellow. (1980-1981). Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.

Full academic scholarships. (1972-1977). School of General Studies, Columbia University, New York, NY.

professional organization membership

American Psychological Association, (APA)

American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD)

American Counseling Personnel Association (ACPA)

Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD)

The National Career Development Association (NCDA)

Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi)

The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

American Education Research Association (AERA)

American Orthopsychiatric Association (Ortho)

American College of Forensic Examiners (ACFE)

National Association of Multicultural Educators (NAME)

CCPJ 5020: Racism and racial identity in psychology and education

A review of the debate on the influence of race and racism on education, mental health, and other social sciences. Introduction of current theoretical and research developments which explore the influence and role of racial identity (black and white) in individual development and professional practice.

CCPJ 5165: Racial-cultural counseling laboratory

Permission and application required. Prerequisites: Admission into the Ed.M. program in Psychological Counseling or Ph.D. program in Counseling Psychology; CCPJ 4064, CCPJ 5371, CCPJ 5025, and either CCPJ 5020 or CCPJ 5164. An advanced experiential skill-oriented and didactic course with limited enrollment (30) intended to provide insights into the racial, social, and cultural factors in the development of relationships in counseling. The course uses a minimum competence model focused on self-exploration and the use of counseling skills.

CCPJ 5560: Review of research in counseling psychology

Required of and limited to doctoral candidates in counseling psychology. Exploration of theoretical and methodological approaches in counseling psychology.

CCPJ 6575: Research models and procedures with racial/cultural emphases

Permission of instructor required. Students participate in ongoing research under the direction of a faculty member. Participation includes formulation of hypotheses, identification of appropriate variables and measures, data collection and analysis, and preparation of research reports. Students register for two consecutive terms.

CCPJ 6902: Advanced Research and Independent Study in Counseling Psychology

CCPJ 7502: Dissertation seminar

Permission required. Prerequisite: CCPJ 5560 and CCPJ 6572-CCPJ 6579. An advanced research course designed to facilitate the development of doctoral dissertations and presentation of plans for approval at all steps in the process. Required of all doctoral students before or after an approved proposal. Registration limited to two terms. For requirements, see section in catalog on Continuous Registration for Ed.D./Ph.D. degrees.

CCPJ 7572: Advanced research practicum in counseling psychology

Permission required. Prerequisite: CCPJ 6572-79. This course is a continuation of CCPJ 6572-79 and is only open to students who have completed two semesters of the prerequisite.

Centers and Projects

Carter's Research Group