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Academic Catalog 2017-2018

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International and Comparative Education Program

Department of - International & Transcultural Studies

Contact Information

212-678-3184
212-678-8237
Mary Mendenhall, Ed.D. Associate Professor of Practice

Program Description

The International and Comparative Education Program provides advanced preparation for professional careers in a wide range of teaching, policy and evaluation, administrative, and research positions. Students may combine their studies with other areas of concentration offered throughout the College.

Description of the Program:

In 1899, Teachers College became the first graduate institution in the United States to develop a program in Comparative Education. In 1956, its faculty members co-founded the Comparative and International Education Society and created one of the field's most prominent peer-reviewed journals, Comparative Education Review.

By the 1960s, Teachers College became instrumental in the study of the international development of education as well and founded the program in International Educational Development. The program's faculty plays prominently in research and other education-related initiatives around the world.

Graduates of the program in International and Comparative Education may assume numerous positions, including academic research and teaching, educational planning, project design and evaluation, program management in foundations, non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations, businesses and corporations, and private and public educational institutions.

The primary distinction between the Ph.D. and Ed.D. degree programs is the area of concentration. Students applying to the Comparative and International Education track select a discipline focus (Anthropology, Economics, History, Philosophy, Political Science, or Sociology), whereas students applying to the International Educational Development track select a concentration within the field of education (African Education; Family and Community Education; Finance and Planning; International Humanitarian Issues; International Policy and Planning; Language, Literacy and Culture; Latin American and Latino Education; or Peace and Human Rights Education). The courses offered in concentrations vary each academic year.

Students in the International and Comparative Education Program are encouraged to select a geographical area of specialty. Geographical areas currently represented by faculty in the Department of International and Transcultural Studies are Africa, the Caribbean, Central Asia, East Asia, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, South Asia, and the U.S. (for a transcultural/immigration focus). Area studies courses are available within our program and through various departments at Teachers College and Columbia University and our students in International and Comparative Education have access to those offerings.

Applications are reviewed once a year for matriculation in the fall semester only. The deadlines for applications are in December or January depending on the degree program.

 

Comparative and International Education

Up to 30 graduate-level credits can be transferred into the Ed.M. and Ph.D. degree programs.

Areas of concentrations offered inside the Department of International and Transcultural Studies:

  • Anthropology

The following presents a description of concentrations in Comparative and International Education offered in the department. 

Anthropology has a long and distinguished history of contributing directly to the major issues facing all educators. Throughout its history, the discipline has offered powerful alternatives. Anthropologists have participated in the shaping of policy and reform at all levels, from the most general to the most local. The anthropology concentration offers a disciplinary approach to analyzing the entry of matters of social class, ethnicity, language, race, gender, and other factors into issues of educational achievement, of health disparity, disability, among other concerns. It also helps students understand the ways of knowing specific to the discipline, how to apply them to practical issues, and participate in the continuing evolution of the field, including better methods for application.

The list of courses offered in Anthropology can be found under the degree programs, listed in this section of the catalog.

Areas of concentrations offered outside the Department of International and Transcultural Studies:

  • Economics
  • History
  • Philosophy
  • Political Science
  • Sociology

The courses for these areas of concentration in the Comparative and International Education program - offered outside the department - can be found under the respective degree programs, listed in other sections of the catalog.

The Ph.D. program in Comparative and International Education includes a foreign language requirement as well as comprehensive training in research methods and data analysis. Ph.D. students are expected to take some of the courses in their discipline at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.

 

International Educational Development

Up to 30 graduate-level credits can be transferred into the Ed.M. and 45 credits into the Ed.D. degree programs.

Areas of concentrations offered inside the Department of International and Transcultural Studies:

  • African Education
  • Family and Community Education
  • Finance and Planning
  • International Humanitarian Issues
  • International Policy and Planning
  • Languages, Literacies and Cultures
  • Latin American and Latino Education
  • Peace and Human Rights Education

The following presents a description of concentrations in International Educational Development.

African Education

Liaison Faculty: Professor S. Garnett Russell 

The concentration in African Education reflects the growing demand within schools and other public agencies for persons knowledgeable about the diverse institutions and historical processes that have shaped the African continent and its educational systems. There is also an unprecedented need for educators and policy makers who understand the fundamental changes in African education stemming from decentralization, democratization, and privatization as well as religious and political movements on the continent. The concentration provides students with a foundation in African studies through courses on cultural and social relations in African communities, demographic changes on the continent, and comparative studies of education in specific African countries. Those who select this concentration will be prepared for further academic studies as well as for professional careers in teaching, policy-making, and international development. Students are encouraged to consult with the concentration liaison or faculty advisor to select courses from other departments at Teachers College as well as from other programs at Columbia University.

 

Family & Community Education

Liaison Faculty: Professor Hope Jensen Leichter

Teachers College continues its long history of groundbreaking work on Family and Community Education through the concentration in Family and Community Education in the ITS Department. In this concentration a founding premise concerning educational configurations is central. In all societies individuals learn from many others in their social networks, e.g. parents, siblings, grandparents, peers, religious leaders, as well as teachers and other professionals. What is more, education takes place through many institutions, e.g. families, day-care centers, businesses, the media, museums, libraries, community agencies, religious institutions, as well as the schools. Since the configurations of these educational networks and institutions are subject to change - sometimes drastic changes such as those associated with new technological enterprises - studies in Family and Community Education examine the changing linkages among educative institutions in the community. Fundamental changes in education also stem from the extensive transnational migration and immigration taking place in many areas of the world today. Given increasing geographic mobility, together with new forms of communication, an understanding of the connections between local and global cultures and the resources families and communities bring from one area to another is essential for educators and policy makers. Thus, another focus of the concentration is studies of family migration, immigration, and education. Courses examine basic processes of education within families, for example, the social construction of family memories, the mediation of television and other forms of technology by families, as well as the changing configurations of education in community settings, for example, linkages among museums, families, and schools. Frameworks for these courses are interdisciplinary, drawing upon concepts from the social sciences and the humanities.

 

Finance & Planning

Liaison Faculty: Professor Mun C. Tsang

The Finance and Planning concentration is devoted to the preparation of researchers, policy analysts, as well as managers and leaders in the financing and planning of education. The courses are designed to examine issues and topics central to the financing and planning of education at various levels across countries today and in the new century. These issues and topics include the financing of quality basic education for all, equity and efficiency in financing, higher-education finance, privatization and educational choice, international aid and education, decision analysis and planning in education, as well as the international and transcultural contexts of educational financing and planning. This concentration is intended for students who will pursue a career dealing with financial and planning aspects in a variety of education settings, including schools and universities, government education departments and ministries, international development organizations, as well as non-profit and community organizations. In addition to courses listed below, students can select relevant courses from departments such as EPSA, Organization and Leadership, Arts and Humanities, as well as from the larger university.

 

International Humanitarian Issues

Liaison Faculty: Professor Mary Mendenhall and Professor S. Garnett Russell

The International Humanitarian Issues (IHI) Concentration is an interdisciplinary specialization within the Program in International Educational Development. It is designed for students interested in conducting research on humanitarian issues or in providing humanitarian assistance in regions experiencing conflict, post-conflict recovery, or natural disasters. Through courses offered at Teachers College, the School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA), the School of Social Work, the Earth Institute, and the Mailman School of Public Health, students will examine the social, political, environmental, and economic dimensions of humanitarian emergencies and the impact of these emergencies on the education sector. Coursework in these different departments and programs will allow students to explore from an interdisciplinary perspective the role of formal and non-formal education in periods of conflict and crisis and to consider the limitations of education in resolving different kinds of humanitarian emergencies. Students in the IHI concentration will plan an appropriate course of study with their advisors, but they are required to take courses from at least one program outside the ICE Program. Additionally, at the doctoral level, students are recommended to complete an internship with an organization involved in humanitarian issues, such as the African Services Committee or the International Rescue Committee with whom standing internship programs exist. In addition, master's and doctoral students are advised to take foreign language and area studies classes to help them obtain familiarity with cultural, historical, and linguistic contexts in which they plan to work.

 

International Policy and Planning

Liaison Faculty: Professors Oren Pizmony-Levy and Gita Steiner-Khamsi

The International Policy and Planning (IPP) concentration is interdisciplinary and applies a cross-national and comparative lens for understanding educational reform at the different levels of an educational system, that is, early childhood education, school (primary, lower secondary, upper secondary), teacher education, vocational-technical education, and higher education. In addition, the IPP concentration is attuned to non-formal education systems and programs. Courses are taught with attention to multiple paradigms and worldviews to prepare future scholars and policy analysts to engage in the work of educational reform, formation, and study. Faculty who teach international policy and planning courses are experts on theories of policy change (e.g., globalization studies, cross-national policy borrowing/lending, transfer of “best practices,” etc.), education reform, and social movements as well as experienced in techniques and methods for carrying out applied analytical work in international policy and planning: sector reviews, policy analysis, public opinion, indicator research, monitoring and evaluation as well as strategic planning in international educational development. Students in this concentration learn about the craft of policy making and analysis, build a strong foundation in theory and debates, and learn empirical methods and analysis. Upon completion of the program, students are equipped with the knowledge to analyze education change in the context of political, economic, and social processes. Equally important, they are able to apply skills that are necessary for developing evidence-based sector reviews, design, monitor and evaluate projects in culture-sensitive and context-specific ways, and use participatory methods for sector planning in international educational development.

 

Languages, Literacies and Cultures

Liaison Faculty: Professors Carol Benson and Nicholas Limerick

This interdisciplinary concentration encourages students to analyze relationships between linguistic and educational practices in an increasingly globalized and technical world. Courses in this concentration address themes of individual and societal multilingualism, multiliteracies and multiculturalism in a range of contexts, including management of diverse languages, the education of immigrant groups, and revitalization in situations of language endangerment/loss. Students may study the role of family, community, school, and/or national-level policy in promoting and valorizing non-dominant languages and cultures. Others may consider how to plan for and teach additional regional, national or international linguistic varieties. Research methods include participant observation, discourse analysis, comparative policy studies, assessment of student achievement and literacies competencies, and classroom-based observation. Courses are designed to help students develop a critical, comparative perspective regarding questions of power, identity, Indigeneity and interculturalism in economically developing as well as developed countries. Associated fields include linguistic human rights, language policy, language-in-education policy and practice, languages and literacies pedagogy and assessment. More recent paradigms include multimodal communication, such as understandings of how visual and digital literacies influence communication and teaching.

 

Latin American and Latino Education

Liaison Faculty: Professor Regina Cortina

Latin American and Latino Education (LALE) is an interdisciplinary concentration focused on education across the Americas. Responding to the importance of the Latin American and Caribbean region as well as the growing numbers of immigrants from that region to the United States, this concentration provides students with a foundation in Latin American/Latino studies through courses that consider topics such as, the impact of economic processes on education in the region; language policy in schools; the social, cultural, and political dimensions of education, ethnicity, and academic achievement; gender and social change; educational access and quality; teacher preparation and curricular development; patterns of migration within and between countries in the Western hemisphere; intercultural education; and the impact of international and bilateral educational policies and institutions on educational policy and practice in the region. Students are also encouraged to pursue relevant coursework at the School of International and Public Affairs, the Mailman School of Public Health, and other Columbia-affiliated institutions to examine the variety of linguistic, cultural, social, political, and economic processes that shape education across the Americas.

 

Peace & Human Rights Education

Liaison Faculty: Professor S. Garnett Russell and Professor Felisa Tibbitts 

In recognition of the unprecedented dimensions of issues of security, war and peace, human rights and global justice, and sustainable development in a world of violent conflict, the ICE program offers a degree concentration in Peace and Human Rights Education. Peace and Human Rights Education is primarily concerned with addressing direct, structural and cultural violence through the transformation of pedagogy, curriculum, and policy related to education in both formal and non-formal contexts. Through the concentration, students are provided with a conceptual understanding of issues related to peace and human rights, as well as practical skills in curriculum design and program development. Students are encouraged to follow a program that will prepare them to pursue the objectives of peace and human rights in whatever area of education they choose to concentrate.

 

 

Various areas of concentrations are offered outside the Department of International and Transcultural Studies as well:

  • Bilingual/Bicultural Education
  • Conflict Resolution
  • Curriculum and Teaching
  • Educational Leadership
  • Higher Education

The courses for these areas of concentrations in the International Educational Development program - offered outside the department - can be found under the respective degree programs, listed in the catalog. Note that any program offered at Teachers College qualifies, in principle, as an area of concentration for the International Educational Development program.

 

 

Degree Summary

Comparative and International Education (COMP)

  • Master of Arts (M.A.)
  • Master of Education (Ed.M.)
  • Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)

International Educational Development (INTL)

  • Master of Arts (M.A.)
  • Master of Education (Ed.M.)
  • Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)

For a complete listing of degree requirements, please click the "Degrees" tab above

For a complete listing of degree requirements, please continue on to this program's "Degrees" section in this document

Degree Requirements

General Degree Requirements

The program is designed to provide students with challenging coursework related to international and transcultural dimensions of education. Requirements include work in four areas: a core curriculum, a concentration that is either a discipline (for Comparative and International Education) or a professional field of education (for International Educational Development), transcultural or geographically related study, and elective credits.

The program arrangements are designed to be as flexible as possible so that previous educational and professional experiences and the future career goals of the student may be taken into account in the choice of appropriate coursework. Each student is expected to assume major responsibility for formulating, in cooperation with the academic advisor, a plan of study that will best meet the general program requirements in a way most compatible with her/his own professional goals. Keep in mind that degrees are offered only by program, that is, applicants need to specify to which of the two international education programs they are applying.


Master of Arts (32 points)

Description of the Master of Arts (M.A.) Program Requirements

International Educational Development (IED – code: INTL)
Comparative and International Education (CIE – code: COMP)

Download IED/CIE Requirements for the M.A. Degree including the Course Planning Worksheet for MA students (PDF).

With regard to all M.A. program requirements, please note:

· Records: Copies are important! It is highly recommended that students keep personal copies of all paperwork submitted to TC offices. Copies of all forms submitted to the Registrar should ALSO be filed in the student file in the ICE program office. This is the responsibility of every student. 

· Communication: Read the weekly Notes from Grace Dodge Hall for important updates and deadlines. Contact the Program Assistant if you have any questions.  

· Advisement: It is the student’s responsibility to meet with his/her faculty advisor and have all coursework approved. It is recommended that students meet with the faculty advisor at least once at the beginning of each semester to discuss course offerings and receive approval of all study plans.

· Choosing courses: It is recommended that students sit in on different courses during the first two weeks of any semester. For course suggestions, students may ask the faculty advisor, the Peer Advisor, or the ICE Program Assistant. Also, speaking with fellow students is a good way to learn about courses being offered. 

· Registering for courses: Students may add or drop courses until the date posted by the Registrar (refer to the TC Academic Calendar) through the online Student Information System. New students need a registration PIN to register, which they can obtain from the ICE Program Assistant at Orientation.

· Courses Outside of TC: All courses taken outside TC at Columbia University are subject to the tuition rates of the school offering the course. Consult the Registrar for current rates and for instructions on how to register.  Please check with your advisor as well. Faculty approval recommended. Note: Doctoral students please see the TC Catalog for information about taking courses through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.

· Full v. part-time status and Certificates of Equivalency (COE): Part-time status is the equivalent of 0-11 credits. Full-time status is the equivalent of 12 or more credits. Part-time students who require full-time certification (for such reasons as funding/financial aid, international student status, IP fieldwork) may file a Certificate of Equivalency form. This must be signed by the student’s advisor and may be obtained online or in person from the Registrar.

1. Coursework (at least 32 graduate level credits).

M.A. coursework falls into four broad areas:

Area 1: Core Courses (6 credits)

· Choose one: ITSF 4090 (Issues and Institutions in International Educational Development) or ITSF 4091 (Comparative Education)

· ITSF Research Methods Course

Area 2: Concentration (at least 12 credits)

· Courses counting towards the concentration must be faculty advisor-approved.

· Students considering a change in concentration must discuss the change with the faculty advisor.

Area 3: Transcultural/Area Studies (at least 6 credits)

· Courses must come from at least two of the following categories: topics, research methods, professional skills, internship/practicum.

Area 4: TC Electives (at least 8 credits)

· To fulfill the TC breadth requirement, M.A. students must take at 6 points of courses that are at TC but outside of the ICE program.

· Courses offered by other programs within the ITS department (anthropology) can also count as TC breadth electives if they are outside of the student’s concentration.

2. Integrative Project (IP)

· Completion of an IP is required for the M.A. degree. Please see the Guidelines for Master’s Integrative Project (IP) in the handbook.

· Students should consult with the faculty advisor about the IP at least one semester before the intended graduation date. After the IP topic has been approved, the IP Advisors are available to guide students through the completion of the IP.

· Students who are working on the IP but are not registered for any other classes may register for IND 4000 (Masters Candidate).

3. Graduation

· Full-time students can complete the M.A. degree within one academic year (fall semester, spring semester, and summer session).

· In order to graduate, students need to review their coursework on Degree Audit (accessed through myTC portal) and have it approved by their faculty advisor. Once the IP is completed, the student's faculty advisor must approve it through Degree Audit. Students may contact the Registrar for specific deadlines. Students must submit a soft and hard copy of the IP to be filed in the ICE Program office (374 GDH). Students will complete a release form indicating whether or not they grant permission for the IP to be viewed by other students.

For more information, review the full ICE Student Handbook here.


Master of Education (60 points)

Description of the Master of Education (Ed.M.) Program Requirements

International Educational Development (IED – code: INTL)
Comparative and International Education (CIE – code: COMP)

Download IED/CIE Requirements for the Ed.M. Degree including the Course Planning Worksheet for EdM students (PDF)

With regard to all Ed.M. program requirements, please note:

· Records: Copies are important! It is highly recommended that students keep personal copies of all paperwork submitted to TC offices. Copies of all forms submitted to the Registrar should ALSO be filed in the student file in the ICE program office. This is the responsibility of every student. 

· Communication: Read the weekly Notes from Grace Dodge Hall for important updates and deadlines. Contact the Program Assistant if you have any questions.  

· Advisement: It is the student’s responsibility to meet with his/her faculty advisor and have all coursework approved. It is recommended that students meet with the faculty advisor at least once at the beginning of each semester to discuss course offerings and receive approval of all study plans.

· Choosing courses: It is recommended that students sit in on different courses during the first two weeks of any semester. For course suggestions, students may ask the faculty advisor, the Peer Advisor, or the ICE Program Assistant. Also, speaking with fellow students is a good way to learn about courses being offered. 

· Registering for courses: Students may add or drop courses until the date posted by the Registrar (refer to the TC Academic Calendar) through the online Student Information System. New students need a registration PIN, which they can obtain from the ICE Program Assistant at Orientation.

· Courses Outside of TC: All courses taken outside TC at Columbia University are subject to the tuition rates of the school offering the course. Consult the Registrar for current rates and for instructions on how to register.  Please check with your advisor. Faculty approval recommended. Note: Doctoral students please see the TC Catalogue for information about taking courses through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.

· Full v. part-time status and Certificates of Equivalency (COE): Part-time status is the equivalent of 0-11 credits. Full-time status is the equivalent of 12 or more credits. Part-time students who require full-time certification (for such reasons as funding/financial aid, international student status, IP fieldwork) may file a Certificate of Equivalency form. This must be signed by the student’s advisor and may be obtained online or in person from the Registrar. 

· Transfer credit: Not applicable to M.A. students. All other students should consult your program requirements for details.

1. Coursework (at least 60 graduate level credits, including up to 30 transferred credits).

Ed.M. coursework falls into four broad areas: 

Area 1: Core Courses (9 credits)

· Choose one: ITSF 4090 (Issues and Institutions in International Educational Development) or ITSF 4091 (Comparative Education)

· ITSF Research Methods Course

· One other advisor-approved ITSF course

Area 2: Concentration (at least 18 credits)

· Courses counting towards the concentration must be faculty advisor-approved.

· Students considering a change in concentration must discuss the change with the faculty advisor.

· In some cases, transferred credits may be applied in this area. 

Area 3: Transcultural/Area Studies (at least 18 credits)

· Courses must come from at least three of the following categories: topics, research methods, professional skills, internship/practicum.

· Transferred credits may be applied in this area.

Area 4: TC Electives (at least 15 credits)

· To fulfill the TC breadth requirement, Ed.M. students must take at least 6 points of courses that are at TC but outside of the ICE program. Courses offered by other programs within the ITS department (anthropology) can also count as TC breadth electives if they are outside of the student’s concentration.

· Other elective courses can be taken outside of the ITS department or transferred from other schools.

Transfer credit:

A maximum of 30 credits may be transferred from other recognized institutions. Only graduate courses which have been (1) completed with grades of B or higher, (2) submitted on an official transcript from a regionally accredited institution, (3) granted/assigned graduate credit on the transcript of that institution, and (4) completed prior to enrollment at Teachers College may be considered for transfer credit. Transfer credit is awarded at the discretion of the faculty advisor and according to College policy. After registering for the first semester, students should obtain and fill out an Advanced Standing Review (ASR) application from the Office of the Registrar and return it to the Office of the Registrar. Transcripts will be evaluated and sent to the ICE Program Assistant, who will then contact the student with further instructions. The entire process can take several months.

2. Integrative Project (IP)

· Completion of an IP is required for the Ed.M. degree. Please see the guidelines for Masters’ Integrative Project (IP) in the student handbook.

· Students should consult with the faculty advisor about the IP at least one semester before the intended graduation date. After the IP topic has been approved, the IP Advisors are available to guide students through the completion of the IP.

· Students who are working on the IP but not registered for any other classes may register for IND 4000 (Masters Candidate).

3. Graduation

· Full-time students who transfer the full 30 credits can complete the Ed.M. degree within one academic year (fall semester, spring semester, and summer session).

· In order to graduate, students need to review their coursework on Degree Audit (accessed through myTC portal) and have it approved by their faculty advisor. Once the IP is completed, the student's faculty advisor must approve it through Degree Audit. Students may contact the Registrar for specific deadlines. Students must submit a soft and hard copy of the IP to be filed in the ICE Program office (374 GDH). Students will complete a release form indicating whether or not they grant permission for the IP to be viewed by other students.

For more information, review the full ICE Student Handbook here.


Doctor of Education (90 points)

Description of the Doctorate in Education (Ed.D.) Program Requirements

International Educational Development (IED – code: INTL)

Download IED/CIE Requirements for the Ed.D. Degree including the Course Planning Worksheet for Ed.D. students (PDF)

Please Note:

·  Records: Copies are important! It is highly recommended that students keep personal copies of all paperwork submitted to TC offices. Copies of all forms submitted to the Registrar should ALSO be filed in the student file in the ICE program office. This is the responsibility of every student. 

· Communication: Read the weekly Notes from Grace Dodge Hall for important updates and deadlines. Contact the Program Assistant if you have any questions.  

· Advisement: It is the student’s responsibility to meet with his/her faculty advisor and have all coursework approved. It is recommended that students meet with the faculty advisor at least once at the beginning of each semester to discuss course offerings and receive approval of all study plans.

· Choosing courses: It is recommended that students sit in on different courses during the first two weeks of any semester. For course suggestions, students may ask the faculty advisor, the Peer Advisor, or the ICE Program Assistant. Also, speaking with fellow students is a good way to learn about courses being offered. 

· Registering for courses: Students may add or drop courses until the date posted by the Registrar (refer to the TC Academic Calendar) through the online Student Information System. New students need a registration PIN, which they can obtain  from the ICE Program Assistant at Orientation.

· Courses Outside of TC: All courses taken outside TC at Columbia University are subject to the tuition rates of the school offering the course. Consult the Registrar for current rates and for instructions on how to register.  Please check with your advisor. Faculty approval recommended. Note: Doctoral students please see the TC Catalog for information about taking courses through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.

· Full- v. part-time status and Certificates of Equivalency (COE): Part-time status is the equivalent of 0-11 credits. Full-time status is the equivalent of 12 or more credits. Part-time students who require full-time certification (for such reasons as funding/financial aid, international student status, IP fieldwork) may file a Certificate of Equivalency form. This must be signed by the student’s advisor and may be obtained online or in person from the Registrar. 

· Transfer credit: Not applicable to M.A. students. All other students should consult your program requirements for details.

1. Coursework (at least 90 graduate level points, including up to 45 transferred credits).

Ed.D. coursework falls into four broad areas:

Area 1: Core Courses (12 credits)

· ITSF 6580: Advanced Seminar in Comparative Education

· ITSF 6581: Advanced Seminar in International Educational Development

· Choose two other ITSF courses (approved by the advisor)

Area 2: Concentration (at least 27 credits)

· Courses counting towards the concentration must be advisor-approved.

· In some cases, transferred credits may be applied in this area.

Area 3: Transcultural/Area Studies/Research Methods (at least 27 credits)

· At least 6 credits must be in research methods

· Other Area 3 courses must come from at least two of the following categories: topics, professional skills, internship/practicum

· In some cases, transferred credits may be applied in this area.

· In some cases, language credits may be applied in this area. Please check with the Registrar for restrictions on applying language credits

Area 4: Broad & Basic/Electives (at least 24 credits)

· Can include courses dealing with the nature of education, the nature of a person’s learning processes, and the methods of evaluation and research

· Can include courses that do not fit into any of the previous categories such as courses in related scholarly disciplines, and/or those which give an understanding of the functions of related specialties.

· Transferred credits may be applied in this area

Languages:

Only graduate-level language courses at an advanced level of proficiency count towards the degree. These require approval from your advisor and the Registrar.  No more than six credits of language courses can be used towards a graduate degree.

Courses Outside of TC:

Please see the TC Catalog for information about taking courses through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.

Transfer credit:

A maximum of 45 credits may be transferred from other recognized institutions. Only graduate courses which have been (1) completed with grades of B or higher, (2) submitted on an official transcript from a regionally accredited institution, (3) granted/assigned graduate credit on the transcript of that institution, and (4) completed prior to enrollment at Teachers College may be considered for transfer credit. Transfer credit is awarded at the discretion of the faculty advisor and according to College policy. After registering for the first semester, students should obtain and fill out an Advanced Standing Review (ASR) application from the Office of the Registrar and return it to the Office of the Registrar. Transcripts will be evaluated and sent to the ICE Program Assistant, who will then contact the student with further instructions. The entire process can take several months.

2. Departmental certification examination

· Students complete their certification exam (AM) by the end of their first year in the program. The exam is integrated with the Advanced Seminar and includes two parts: one completed in the fall semester and one completed in the spring. Students must be authorized by ODS to take this exam; please see advisor for more details. The certification exam may be attempted twice. More information is available on the “Ed.D/Ph.D Policies and Procedures” page on the ICE website.

3. Specialization examination

· Each professional specialization has different examination requirements. Students must register for the exam with ODS during the first week of the semester and should consult the main advisor for more information.

4. Defense of a dissertation proposal

· The dissertation proposal defense requires two readers. The advisor/sponsor is the first reader, and students are responsible for finding a second reader appropriate for the concentration.

· Students should register for ITSF 7500 during the semester of the proposal hearing.

· Students are responsible for making arrangements with the two readers for the proposal hearing. Students should fill out the “Dissertation Proposal Hearing Report,” available from the ODS website. After a successful hearing, this form needs to be signed by both readers and the department chair. A copy should be submitted to the ICE program office and the original should be turned in to ODS.

· After a successful proposal hearing, students must submit an application to TC’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the research project.

Please refer to the TC IRB website for more information (http://www.tc.columbia.edu/admin/irb/). Once approved, copies of the IRB approval letter must be filed with the ICE program office and ODS.

5. Program Plan 

· Download the document "Ed.D. Program Plan Form" from the ODS website. Students should complete the Program Plan and obtain the advisor's signature on the form. This should be done by the time of the proposal hearing.

6. Ed.D. Certification

· Once students have 1) completed most of the required coursework, 2) passed the department exam, the specialization exam, and the proposal hearing, 3) received IRB approval for the dissertation research, and 4) submitted the approved program plan, students are eligible for Ed.D. certification. This process must be completed through the ICE program office with the assistance of the ICE program assistant.  Final determination of certification is by the Office of Doctoral Studies.

7. Fieldwork Outside of the United States

· Students who are conducting fieldwork outside of the United States may register for ITSF 6200 for one or two semesters. This is a 0-credit course. If this course will be taken, it should be included in the program plan.  

8. Preparation and defense of a research dissertation

· All Ed.D. students must registered for ITSF8900, Doctoral Dissertation Advisement, after the Dissertation Proposal Hearing or the submission of the Recommendation for Certification to the Office of Doctoral Studies, whichever comes first. Students who are unable to receive advisement may be eligible for a wavier.   Contact the office of Doctoral Studies for more information. 

· Students may also refer to the document "General Instructions for the Preparation of Dissertations for the Doctor of Education Degree: A Manual of Style" downloadable from the ODS website for more information on dissertation preparation.

· The “Guide to the Dissertation Oral Defense” is available on the ODS website for general guidance on preparing for the dissertation defense.

· Consult the Office of Doctoral Studies for requirements on continuous enrollment. 

For more information, review the full ICE Student Handbook here.


Doctor of Philosophy (75 points)

Description of the Doctorate in Philosophy (Ph.D.) Program Requirements

Comparative and International Education (CIE – code: COMP)

Download IED/CIE Requirements for the Ph.D. Degree including the Course Planning Worksheet for Ph.D. students (PDF)

Please Note:

· Records: Copies are important! It is highly recommended that students keep personal copies of all paperwork submitted to TC offices. Copies of all forms submitted to the Registrar should ALSO be filed in the student file in the ICE program office. This is the responsibility of every student. 

· Communication: Read the weekly Notes from Grace Dodge Hall for important updates and deadlines. Contact the Program Assistant if you have any questions.  

· Advisement: It is the student’s responsibility to meet with his/her faculty advisor and have all coursework approved. It is recommended that students meet with the faculty advisor at least once at the beginning of each semester to discuss course offerings and receive approval of all study plans.

· Choosing courses: It is recommended that students sit in on different courses during the first two weeks of any semester. For course suggestions, students may ask the faculty advisor, the Peer Advisor, or the ICE Program Assistant. Also, speaking with fellow students is a good way to learn about courses being offered. 

· Registering for courses: Students may add or drop courses until the date posted by the Registrar (refer to the TC Academic Calendar) through the online Student Information System. New students need a registration PIN, which they can obtain from the ICE Program Assistant at Orientation.

· Courses Outside of TC: All courses taken outside TC at Columbia University are subject to the tuition rates of the school offering the course. Consult the Registrar for current rates and for instructions on how to register.  Please check with your advisor. Faculty approval recommended. Note: Doctoral students please see the TC Catalog for information about taking courses through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.

· Full v. part-time status and Certificates of Equivalency (COE): Part-time status is the equivalent of 0-11 credits. Full-time status is the equivalent of 12 or more credits. Part-time students who require full-time certification (for such reasons as funding/financial aid, international student status, IP fieldwork) may file a Certificate of Equivalency form. This must be signed by the student’s advisor and may be obtained online or in person from the Registrar. 

· Transfer credit: Not applicable to M.A. students. All other students should consult your program requirements for details.

1. Coursework (at least 75 graduate level points, including up to 30 transferred credits).

Ph.D. coursework falls into four broad areas:

Area 1: Core Courses (9 credits)

· ITSF 6580: Advanced Seminar in Comparative Education

· ITSF 6581: Advanced Seminar in International Educational Development

· Choose 1 other ITSF course (approved by advisor)

Area 2: Concentration in an Academic Discipline (at least 30 credits)

· Courses counting towards the concentration must be advisor-approved.

· Many of these courses can be taken at Columbia’s Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (GSAS).

· This area may include discipline-based research methods (note that Ph.D. students must have at least 12 credits of research methods courses).

· In some cases, transferred credits may be applied in this area.

Area 3: Comparative Education/Transcultural/Area Studies (at least 18 credits)

· The majority of these courses will come from the ITS department.

· This area may include research methods (note that Ph.D. students must have at least 12 credits of research methods courses).

· Transferred credits may be applied in this area.

Area 4: Non-Major Foundations/Electives (at least 18 credits)

· This includes courses taken outside the primary program of study.

· Transferred credits may be applied in this area.

Languages:

Only graduate-level language courses at an advanced level of proficiency count towards the degree. These require approval from your advisor and the Registrar.  No more than 6 credits of language courses can be used towards a graduate degree.

Courses Outside of TC: Please see the TC Catalog for information about taking courses through the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.

Transfer credit:

A maximum of 30 credits may be transferred from other recognized institutions. Only graduate courses which have been (1) completed with grades of B or higher, (2) submitted on an official transcript from a regionally accredited institution, (3) granted/assigned graduate credit on the transcript of that institution, and (4) completed prior to enrollment at Teachers College may be considered for transfer credit. Transfer credit is awarded at the discretion of the faculty advisor and according to College policy. After registering for the first semester, students should obtain and fill out an Advanced Standing Review (ASR) application from the Office of the Registrar and return it to the Office of the Registrar. Transcripts will be evaluated and sent to the ICE Program Assistant, who will then contact the student with further instructions. The entire process can take several months.

Note:

Ph.D. students must complete all degree requirements in no more than seven years. Those with 30 points of advanced standing prior to doctoral admission are to complete requirements within six years.

2. Departmental certification examination

Students complete their certification exam (AM) by the end of their first year in the program. The exam is integrated with the Advanced Seminar and includes two parts: one completed in the fall semester and one completed in the spring. Students must be authorized by ODS to take this exam; please see advisor for more details. The certification exam may be attempted twice. More information is available on the “Ed.D/Ph.D Policies and Procedures” page.

3. Specialization examination

Each discipline has different examination requirements. Students must register for the exam with ODS during the first week of the semester and should consult the main advisor for more information.

4. Defense of a dissertation proposal

· The dissertation proposal defense requires two readers. The advisor/sponsor is the first reader, and students are responsible for finding a second reader appropriate for the concentration.

· Students should register for ITSF 7500 during the semester of the proposal hearing. Please note that students are liable for dissertation advisement fees (ITSF 8900) in every semester following registration for ITSF 7500.

· Students are responsible for making arrangements with the two readers for the proposal hearing. Students should fill out the “Dissertation Proposal Hearing Report,” available from the ODS website. After a successful hearing, this form needs to be signed by both readers and the department chair. A copy should be submitted to the ICE program office and the original should be turned in to ODS.

· After a successful proposal hearing, students must submit an application to TC’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) for the research project. Please refer to the TC IRB website for more information (www.tc.columbia.edu/administration/osp/irb/).  Once approved, copies of the IRB approval letter must be filed with the ICE program office and ODS. 

5. Foreign Language Examinations 

· Ph.D. students are required to pass two proficiency examinations in foreign languages. Examinations are usually arranged through the appropriate language department at Columbia University.

· One of these examinations may be replaced by receiving a passing grade for two of the following statistics courses offered at TC: HUDM 4122 (Probability and Statistical Inference), HUDM 5122 (Applied Regression Analysis), HUDM 5123 (Experimental Design). 

· Languages to be used must be listed on the program plan.

6. Program Plan

· Download the documents, "Instructions for Completing the Ph.D. Course Program Plan" and "Ph.D. Course Program Plan Form" from the ODS website. Students should complete the Program Plan and obtain the advisor's signature on the form. This should be done by the time of the proposal hearing.

7. M.Phil. Certification

· Once students have 1) completed all required coursework, 2) passed the department exam, the specialization exam, and the proposal hearing, 3) passed the foreign language examinations, 4) received IRB approval for the dissertation research, and 5) submitted the approved program plan, students are eligible for M.Phil certification. This process must be completed through the ICE program office with the assistance of the ICE program assistant.

8. Fieldwork Outside of the United States

· Students who are conducting fieldwork outside of the United States may register for ITSF 6200 for one or two semesters. This is a 0-credit course. If this course will be taken, it should be included in the program plan. 

9. Preparation and defense of a research dissertation

· After taking ITSF 7500, all Ph.D. candidates are required to continuously register for ITSF 8900 and pay a fee in the term in which the dissertation is defended. Students who are not going to receive advisement may submit a “Personal Exemption for Dissertation Advisement” to ODS. Students may instead register for IND 6000 and file a Certificate of Equivalency with the Registrar.

· Students may also refer to the document "General Instructions for the Preparation of Dissertations for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy" downloadable from the ODS website for more information on dissertation preparation.

· Consult the Office of Doctoral Studies for requirements on continuous enrollment. 

For more information, review the full ICE Student Handbook here.


Application Information

Applicants to the master's and doctoral degrees in the international education program should indicate their area of concentration and a geographical area or transcultural topic of interest on their application for admission. These concentrations are not binding, and enrolled students are at liberty to change their concentration and specialty at the beginning of their studies.

Applicants to the Ed.M., Ph.D., and Ed.D. degrees must have a master's degree. Doctoral applicants must submit an academic writing sample, and an informal meeting is recommended. Please visit the program website to review guidelines for informal meetings. Applicants for the Ph.D. program in Comparative and International Education are expected to have already completed some coursework in the discipline they select as their concentration.

Application deadlines:

  • M.A., Ed.M.: January 15 
  • Ed.D.: January 2
  • Ph.D.: December 15

Faculty List

Faculty

Lecturers

Visiting Faculty

Adjunct

Full-Time Instructors

Instructors

Director of Research and Development
Associate Professor of International & Comparative Education
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Professor of Education
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Elbenwood Professor of Education
Assistant Professor of Anthropology and Education
Associate Professor of Practice
Assistant Professor of International and Comparative Education
Instructor
Edward Larocque Tinker Visiting Professor
Asst Professor in Int'l and Comparative Education
Adjunct Assistant Professor
Professor of Education
Professor of Economics and Education Policy
Adjunct Professor

For up to date information about course offerings including faculty information, please visit the online course schedule.

Course List

ITSF 4005 Education in emergencies and reconstruction
This course provides students with a comprehensive introduction to the growing and increasingly complex field of education in emergencies, one which encompasses crises caused by natural disasters and armed conflict and which spans the relief-development spectrum.
ITSF 4009 Introduction to Research Methods in International and Comparative Education

This course is designed to serve as an introduction to the concepts, methods, and applications of empirical research in international and comparative education. The course readings, lectures, class discussion, activities, and course assignments will examine fundamental issues and processes of research design and practice from a variety of methodological perspectives —qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods.  Students taking this class should also consider registering for HUDM 4120 or HUDM 4122.

ITSF 4013 Literacy and development
This course examines common assumptions about the relationship between literacy and cognitive and/or social, political and/or economic development.
ITSF 4015 Introduction to computers, language, and literacy
Sociocultural implications of computer use in education; viability of software use in the light of language learning theories; evaluation of electronic materials for use by bilingual, ESL, and native- and foreign-language learners. Materials fee: $20.
ITSF 4025 Languages, society, and schools
This course studies the role that languages play in different societal contexts. It examines the language policies of different societies and looks at how these policies are enacted or not in different institutional contexts by diverse speakers. In doing so, the course pays attention to diverse language ideologies as well as to the relationship between language and identity. Languages and literacies in schools, especially educational language policy in multilingual contexts, receive special consideration.
ITSF 4034 Dynamics of family interaction
An introduction to communication patterns inside families, with a special emphasis on both their complexity at the interpersonal level and their simplicity within the social structure of a community. Class time is dominated by cross-cultural data on family structure and videotape analyses of communication patterns within American families.
ITSF 4038 Monitoring and Evaluation in International Educational Development

This course explores small- and large-scale research and evaluation methods and their potential for valid, reliable, efficient evaluation of educational outcomes as well as project outcomes.  Needs assessment, capacity assessment, project evaluations (mid-term and final), performance appraisals and impact evaluations done for a range of agencies and organizations are analyzed for diverse educational programs (including formal and non-formal education) in low-income country contexts.

ITSF 4060 Latinos in urban schools

Students will be introduced to theories and research explaining why Latinos in the United States are least likely of all major social groups to be enrolled in school and, as adults, are most likely to lack a high school diploma.  The course will explore the racial/ethnic differences that exist between and within recent immigrant groups, drawing especially on research that shows the diversity of cultural backgrounds within Latino subgroups.  Topics will include assimilation of new immigrants, educational achievement and persistence in school, language and schooling, the interplay of race and gender and class with educational attainment, and transnational communities.

ITSF 4090 Issues and institutions in international educational development
This course explores theoretical approaches to the study of education in international development and uses these approaches to consider current topics and debates in the fields of international and comparative education. This course also introduces students to institutions involved with educational development in diverse global settings, such as the United Nations and the World Bank. This course is also offered at the doctoral level (ITSF 6581).
ITSF 4091 Comparative education
Introduction to theories in comparative education, cross-national comparative analysis, educational indicator research, educational transfer and borrowing, and the relation between culture and education. This course is also offered at the doctoral level (ITSF 6580).
ITSF 4092 Qualitative research and evaluation in international education
The study of qualitative methodologies appropriate to various kinds of educational programs, issues, and problems in diverse research settings.
ITSF 4093 International educational development: Curriculum and pedagogy
This course explores the problems, issues, and approaches in the development of curricula, preparation of instructional materials, and training of educators internationally.
ITSF 4094 Educational planning in international educational development

The course explores educational planning and policy analysis in developing countries. A special focus is placed on aid effectiveness, aid modalities, and the aid architecture in countries where educational reforms are sometimes funded by multilateral organizations, development banks, and non-governmental organizations. Critical issues, such as global benchmarking, target setting, and monitoring by the World Bank, OECD, and other international organizations are examined.  Students learn about current debates and controversies in international educational development and reflect on the impact of externally funded projects on educational planning and reform in developing countries.

ITSF 4096 Strategic planning and organizational change in international and national educational settings
The seminar uses theories and methods of social network analysis for examining regional and global policy networks. Besides reading and discussing sociological texts and policy studies literature, we will conduct collaborative empirical analyses of policy networks and policy entrepreneurs. Willingness to conduct empirical research (content and reference analyses) is a condition for participating in this seminar.
ITSF 4098 Educational Development and Policies in China
Historical and national development contexts of educational development in China. Key policy issues in education by level and across levels.
ITSF 4101 Quantitative Analysis in Comparative and International Education

This course serves as an introduction to quantitative analysis as applied to the field of Comparative International Education.  The course covers fundamental concepts of quantitative analysis, inferential statistics, and introduces the assumptions and mechanics of the classical normal linear regression model.

ITSF 4160 Human rights education in Africa: Politics, policies, and pedagogies
Students examine the historical conditions that give rise to human rights violations and the efforts to protect rights through policy and education. They explore different approaches to human rights education, apply them to case studies of specific African countries, and develop human rights education curricula.
ITSF 4190 Communicative practices: intercultural perspectives
A topical course exploring language as situated social practice and focusing on communication within and across national boundaries. Domains examined include schooling, work, community, and the public arena. Both spoken and written modes are considered.
ITSF 4195 Academic literacies
This course is designed to help students develop the professional knowledge and skills necessary for effective communication through such genres as research projects, conference presentations, contributions to journals, grant proposals, and evaluation reports.
ITSF 4603 Human and social dimensions of peace
This course focuses on issues of human rights, global ethics, and various aspects of structural and cultural violence. Students are introduced to examples of nonviolent social movements and reflect on the process of peaceful transformation. Another course in human rights may be substituted for the concentration in peace education.
ITSF 4613 International perspectives on peace and human rights education

This course provides a grounding in the theory, pedagogy, and practice of peace and human rights education. It draws from the international literature of the field as it has been developed over the past three decades, and reviews teaching practices relevant to various cultures and learning settings.

ITSF 4614 International Organizations, Civil Society and Peace Education
This course reviews and assesses the work of the world organization and how it facilitates the learning necessary to an integrated global society. The area of emphasis and problem of focus vary from semester to semester. Not offered every year.
ITSF 5006 Comparative Policy Studies: Overview

The course is designed to help students to understand foundations and techniques of policy analysis underlying education sector strategies of low-income countries. Part 1 will review critical debates over the role of donors and aid recipients in development contexts and introduce students to tools and techniques for producing education sector strategies. Part 2 will provide an overview of theories of the policy process from an international comparative perspective and therefore also include theories of global education policy, “traveling reforms,” and transnational policy borrowing and lending. Part 3 will discuss trends in various sub-sectors that international agencies tend to frame as “best practices” and for which they provide technical assistance and external financial support.  

ITSF 5008 Gender, education, and international development

This seminar examines the field of international education development from the standpoint of feminist and gender studies.  We will read and discuss relevant studies in anthropology, economics, history, political science, and sociology, as well as interdisciplinary research in the fields of development studies and gender studies.  We will begin by considering the political and legal advances in women’s rights within the daily reality of people’s lives in developing countries through the multiple lenses of democratic theory, neoliberal policies, and multiculturalism.

ITSF 5023 The family as educator
Permission required. Analysis of the family as educator and its interrelations with schools and other educational institutions. Emphasis on inquiry deriving from educational practice and behavioral science theory.
ITSF 5026 The family and television

Permission required. An analysis of the impact of television on the family's educative functions, with special attention to the process by which the family mediates television.

ITSF 5029 Education, Conflict, and Peace-Building

This course examines the politics of armed conflict and peace building and the role of education in promoting peace or exacerbating violence in conflict-affected and post-conflict contexts.  We will investigate several of the most pressing challenges facing the various stakeholders (external actors such as international organizations, bilateral donors, and NGOs; local actors, such as governments, civil societies, and nationalist/ideological state factions) and the influence of those stakeholders on education systems in times of war and emerging peace and on educational practices, policies, and curricula in conflict and post-conflict situations.

ITSF 5031 Education and Sustainable Development: Comparative and International Perspectives

This course critically examines ESD-related policies and practices within a variety of contexts and perspectives.  Beginning with an overview of the foundations of ESD, we will explore key issues in the field: (a) the development of ESD policy in different levels (e.g., supranational, national, and subnational); (b) the links bewteen ESD and other curricular movements (e.g., environmental education, human rights education and peace education); (c) drivers and barriers that shape ESD policy/practice (e.g., environmental NGOs); and, (d) ESD "best practices" and their impact on teaching and learning.

ITSF 5035 Social Analysis of International Large-Scale Assessments

The course provides students with an introduction to international large-scale assessment of student achievement (such as TIMSS, PIRLS, and PISA).  The first section of the course is dedicated to the history of international assessments and to conditions that facilitated their emergence and diffusion.  The second section is focused on the methodology behind global and regional projects.  The third section is focused on critical analysis of the ways in which scholars, media, and policy makers use data from international assessments.  Prerequisite:  ITSF 4090 (Issues and Institutions in International Educational Development) or ITSF 4091 (Comparative Education) or by permission of instructor.

ITSF 5040 Mixed Methods in International Comparative Education

The course is designed to develop students' ability to critically consume and produce research in their specialized field within International and Comparative Education or other programs in the department, college and university.  Students will be oriented to the epistemological and other assumptions and methodological practices of quantitative and qualitative methods including experimental, survey research, ethnographic, and historical approaches to disciplined inquiry. Students will be exposed to positivist, interpretive, and critical/feminist traditions or paradigms associated with these approaches as well as ethical dilemmas encountered in planning, conducting, reporting, and consuming research.

ITSF 5043 Critical Theories on Latin American and Latino Education

This course will explore emerging critical theories on Latin American and Latino Studies to advance new perspectives and knowledge in comparative education. Discussion will be framed within relevant theories, such as Critical Thinking (Pensamiento Crítico), Dependency Theory, Internal Colonialism, Liberation Theory, and Indigenous Ways of Knowing. Among the issues to be discussed are the rights of Indigenous peoples to education and the preservation of cultural and linguistic diversity of people in the developing world in parallel with the struggles of Latinos in the United States to improve their educational opportunity at the high school and postsecondary levels.

ITSF 5050 Language, Cultural Politics, and Education

Over recent decades, discourses of multiculturalism and multilingualism have become standard in the educational initiatives of nation-states, multinational corporations, and nongovernmental organizations. In much of the world, practitioners no longer ask whether they should educate for diversity but rather how they should carry out such efforts within many existing alternatives. This course covers historical moments in which different types of multicultural and multilingual education have arisen; social theories about social inequality, language, and education that help us understand them; and examples of educational initiatives that reinforce or change inequity. Students are encouraged to consider radical possibilities for educational change.

ITSF 5090 Migration and education

This course examines the relationship between education and demographic change in international educational development. It focuses on historical and cultural changes in the areas of fertility, migration, mortality, and sustainable development.

ITSF 5120 Education in community settings: Museums
Permission required. A review and an analysis of educational issues and opportunities in various community settings. Special fee: $5.
ITSF 5430 Internship
Permission required. Supervised experiences in diverse settings designed to develop skills in research, development, planning, and evaluation.
ITSF 5500 Education across the Americas

In this seminar, students will be introduced to education and social issues in Latin America and the Caribbean since the consolidation of national systems of public education during the twentieth century.  Using theoretical perspectives drawn from development studies, globalization and comparative education, the course will include case studies of individual nations as well as issues embracing the region as a whole.  Topics will include social and political dimensions of education, ethnicity and academic achievement, women’s education and social change, teacher preparation, student movements and patterns of migration.  Moreover, the effects of projects financed by international organizations will be evaluated in terms of improved access, teacher training and intercultural understanding within the education systems of Latin America and the Caribbean.

ITSF 5580 Postcolonial studies of education
Prerequisites or corequisites: ITSF 4090 and ITSF 4091. This course explores the impact of missionary, colonial education, and neo-colonial education on school reform both in dependent countries and in former colonial countries.
ITSF 5590 Education and the development of nations

Prerequisites: ITSF 4090/6580 or ITSF 4091/6581. This seminar explores the politics of education in international and transcultural contexts. Course topics include educational equity and quality as well as the role of international donors in transplanting particular "best practice" or reform packages from one national context to another.

ITSF 6200 Field research outside the United States
Permission required. Required of doctoral students when choice of doctoral research necessitates data generation in other countries. One year of field experience under supervision in approved geographical and institutional site. Students secure approval of department chair and principal advisor in advance and render periodic reports.
ITSF 6520 Seminar in families and communities as educators
Permission required. A research seminar in the family and the community as educational systems.
ITSF 6580 Advanced seminar in international education I
This course will focus on the history, methods and theories in the field of international and comparative education.
ITSF 6581 Advanced seminar in international education II
This course will focus on issues, institutions, and applications in the practice of international and comparative education.
ITSF 6590 Doctoral seminar in international and transcultural studies
Permission required. Presentation of research in progress and examination of professional roles.
ITSF 6902 Studies in international and transcultural studies
ITSF 6990 Studies in international educational development
In each of the areas within the department, advanced students may register for intensive individual study of some aspect of their specialization. Registration is only by permission of the instructor under whose guidance the work will be undertaken. Times for individual conferences will be arranged. Enrollment may be for 1 or more points each term, and registration is not limited to one or two terms.
ITSF 6991 Studies in comparative education
In each of the areas within the department, advanced students may register for intensive individual study of some aspect of their specialization. Registration is only by permission of the instructor under whose guidance the work will be undertaken. Times for individual conferences will be arranged. Enrollment may be for 1 or more points each term, and registration is not limited to one or two terms.
ITSF 7500 Dissertation seminar in international and transcultural studies
Permission required. Proposal writing. Required of doctoral students in the semester following successful completion of certification examinations.