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Developing Language and Literacy Laboratory


* = Student author

  • Hammer, C.S., & Limlingan, M. C. (in press).  How bilingualism affects children’s language development. D. Castro & A. Artiles (Eds.), Language, learning, and disability: Issues, Opportunities in the education of young bilingual children. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  • Willard, J., Cycyk, L., Bitetti, D. & Hammer, C.S. (in press).  Mothers’ depressive symptoms and their children’s Turkish heritage language vocabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism
  • Hammer, C.S. & Edmonds, L. (in press).  Bilingualism in clinical linguistics.  In A. DeHouwer & L. Ortega (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism.  New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. 
  •  Sawyer, B., Cycyk, L.M.*, Sandilos, L., & Hammer, C.S.  (in press). “So many books they don’t even fit on the bookshelf”: An examination of low-income mothers’ literacy practices, beliefs and influencing factors. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy.  
  • Hammer, C.S., Morgan, P., Farkas, G., Maczuga, S., Hillemeier, M., & Bitetti, D.*  (2017).  A population-based study of late talkers’ school readiness.  Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 60, 607-626.   
  • Bitetti, D.* & Hammer, C.S. (2016).  The Home Literacy Environment and the English Narrative Development of Spanish-English Bilingual Children.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59, 1159–1171.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Sawyer, B. (2016).  Development of a Culturally Responsive Book Reading Intervention for Latina Mothers and their Head Stat Children. National Head Start Association Dialog, 18 (4), 123-128. 
  • Hammer, C.S., & Sawyer, B. (2016).  Effects of a Culturally Responsive Interactive Book-Reading Intervention on the Language Abilities of Preschool Dual Language Learners: A Pilot Study.  National Head Start Association Dialog, 18 (4), 59-79. 
  • Morgan, P., Hammer, C.S., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M., Maczuga, S., Cook, M., & Morano, S. (2016).  Who receives speech/language services by five years of age in the U.S.? American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 25, 183-199.  doi:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0201
  • Lewis, K.*,  Hammer, C.S., Sandilos, L.*, Sawyer, B. & Mendez, L.* (2016).  Relations among the home language and literacy environment and children's language abilities: A study of Head Start Dual Language Learners and their mothers. Early Education and Development, 27, 478-494.
  • Sawyer, B., Hammer, C.S., Cycyk, L., López, L., Blair, C., Sandilos, L., & Komaroff, E (2016). Teachers' language and literacy practices with dual language learners.  Bilingual Research Journal, 39 (1), 35-49.  doi: 10.1080/15235882.2016.1138904
  • Sandilos, L.*, Lewis, K.*, Komaroff, E., Hammer, C.S.,  Rodriguez, B., López, L., & Goldstein, B., (2015).  Analysis of bilingual children’s performance on the English and Spanish versions of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-R (WMLS-R).  Language Assessment Quarterly: An International Journal, 12, 386-408.
  • Cycyk, L.*, Hammer, C.S., & Bitetti, D.* (2015).  Maternal depressive symptomatology, social support, and language development of low-income bilingual children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 24, 411-425. 
  • Morgan, P., Farkas, G., Hillimeier, M , Hammer, C.S., & Maczaga, S. (2015).Early vocabulary knowledge and its relation to school readiness. Child Development, 86, 1351-1370.  
  • Sandilos, L.*, Cycyk, L.*, Hammer, C.S., Sawyer, B., Lopez, L., & Blair, C. ( 2015).  Depression, control, and climate: An examination of factors impacting teaching quality in preschool classrooms. Early Education and Development, 26, 1111-1127. 
  • Hindman, A., Snell, E., Wasik, B., Lewis, K.*, Hammer, C.S., Iannone-Campbell, C. (2015).  Research and practice partnerships for professional development in early childhood: Lessons from ExCELL-e.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk.
  • Hammer, C.S., Hoff, E., Uchikoshi, Y., Gillanders, C. & Sandilos, L.* (2014). The Language and Literacy Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 715-733. PMCID:  PMC4394382
  • Buysse, V., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Páez, M, Hammer, C.S., & Knowles, M.* (2014).  Effects of Early Education Programs and Practices on the Development and Learning of Dual Language Learners: A Review of the Literature.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 765-785. 
  • Hammer, C.S. (2014).  Life is Hard, but I’m trying:” Understanding the Lives of the Families Speech-Language Pathologists Serve (pp. 207-218).  In M. Ball (Ed.), Handbook in qualitative research in communication disorders. 
  • Mason, L.H., Davison, M.D.*, Hammer, C.S., & Miller, C.A. (2013).  Knowledge and language outcomes for a reading comprehension and writing intervention. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 1133-1158.
  • Davison, M.D.*, & Hammer, C.S. (2012).  Development of 14 English Grammatical Morphemes in Spanish-English Preschoolers. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 26, 728-742.  PMCID: PMC3524526
  • Hammer, C.S. (2012). Dual language learners’ language development: A range of possibilities.  Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 14, 1-14. 
  • Hammer, C.S., Komaroff, E., Rodríguez, B., L, L., Scarpino, S., & Goldstein, B. (2012).   Predicting Spanish-English Bilingual Children’s Language Abilities. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 55, 1251-1264. PMCID: PMC3524528
  • Hammer, C.S., & Rodríguez, B. (2012).  Bilingual language acquisition and the child socialization process (pp. 31-46).  In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Bilingual development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers (2nd Ed). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishers.
  • Davison, M.D.*, Hammer, C.S., & Lawrence, F.R., (2011). Associations between Preschool Language and First Grade Reading Outcomes in Bilingual Children.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 44, 444-458. PMCID: PMC3138808
  • Hammer, C.S., Jia, G., & Uchikoshi, Y. (2011). Language and Literacy Development of Dual Language Learners Growing Up in the United States: A Call for Research.  Child Development Perspectives, 5, 4-9. PMCID: PMC3524578
  • Hammer, C.S., Rodríguez, B.L., Davison, M.D.*, Lawrence, F.L., & Miccio, A.W. (2011). Changes in Language Usage of Puerto Rican Mothers and Their Children: Do Gender and Timing of Exposure to English Matter? Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 275-297. PMCID: PMC3524524
  • Hammer, C.S., Scarpino, S., & Davison, M.D.* (2011).  Beginning with language:  Spanish-English Bilingual Preschoolers’ Early Literacy Development (pp. 118-135).  Dickinson, D., & Neuman, S. (Eds.), Handbook on research in early literacy (Vol. 3).  NY: Guilford Publications.
  • Scarpino, S.*, Davison, M.*, & Hammer, C.S. (2011). Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children`s Phonological Awareness Abilities from their Growth in English and Spanish Oral Language.  Journal of Research in Reading, 34, 77-93.
  • Hammer, C.S., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2010).  The language and literacy development of Head Start children: A study using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database.  Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 70-83. 
  • Hammer, C.S., & Rodríguez, B. (2010).  Individual differences in bilingual children’s language competencies: The case for Spanish and English. In A.L. Weiss (Ed.). Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders (57-80). New York, NY:  Psychology Press.
  • Hammer, C.S., Davison, M.D.*, Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2009).  The effect of home language on bilingual children’s vocabulary and emergent literacy development during Head Start and kindergarten.  Scientific Studies of Reading - Special Issue, 13 (2), 99-121.   PMCID: PMC3627728
  • Miccio, A.W., Hammer, C.S. & Rodríguez, B.L. (2009).  Code-switching and language disorders in young bilingual children (pp. 241-252). In J. Toribio & B. Bullock (Eds.), Handbook on linguistic code-switching. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rodríguez, B., Hammer, C.S., & Lawrence, F.R. (2009). Parent reading belief inventory: Reliability and validity with a sample of Mexican-American families.  Early Education and Development, 20, 826-844.  PMCID: PMC3536018
  • Hammer, C.S., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2008).  The effect of summer vacation on bilingual preschoolers' language development.  Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 22 (9), 686-902. 
  • Hammer, C.S., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2008).  Exposure to English before and after entry into Head Start:  Bilingual Children’s Receptive Language Growth in Spanish and English.  International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11 (1), 30-56.
  • Durham, R.*, Farkas, G., Hammer, C.S., Tomblin, J.B., & Catts, H.W. (2007).  Kindergarten oral language skill: A key variable in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status.  Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 25, 294-305. 
  • Hammer, C.S., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2007).  Bilingual Children's Language Abilities and Reading Outcomes in Head Start and Kindergarten.  Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 237-248. 
  • Hammer, C.S., Rodríguez, B.L., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W., (2007).  Puerto Rican mothers’ beliefs and home literacy practices.  Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 216-224. PMCID: PMC3535495
  • Hammer, C.S., & Miccio, A.W. (2006).  Early Language and Reading Development of Bilingual Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.  Topics in Language Disorders, 26 (4), 302-317.  SUBMITTED TO NIH
  • Hammer, C.S., Nimmo, D.*, Cohen, R.,* Draheim, H.*, & Johnson, A.* (2005).  Book Reading Interactions Between African American and Puerto Rican Head Start Children and Their Mothers.  Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5(3), 195-227. 
  • Hewitt, L., Hammer, C.S., Yont, C.*, & Tomblin, J.B. (2005). Language sampling for kindergarten children with and without SLI: Mean length of utterance, IPSYN, and NDW.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 197-213.
  • Fallon, K.*, Light, J., McNaughton, D., Drager, K., & Hammer, C.S. (2004).  The Effects of Direct Instruction on the Single-Word Reading Skills of Children Who Require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 1424-1439. 
  • Hammer, C.S., & Miccio, A.W.  (2004).  Home literacy experiences of Latino families. In B. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of family literacy.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hammer, C.S., Detwiler, J.*, Blood, G.W., Qualls, C., & Detwiler, J. (2004).  Speech-language pathologists' training and confidence in serving Spanish-English bilingual children.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 37, 91-108.   
  • Hammer, C.S., Miccio, A.W., & Rodríguez, B. (2004).  Bilingual language acquisition and the child socialization process. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers.  Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Qualls, C.D., Lantz, J.,* Pietryz, L. * Blood, G. & Hammer, C.S.  (2004).  Comprehension of idioms in adolescents with language-based learning disabilities compared to their typically developing peers.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 37, 295-311.
  • Blood, G.W., Ridenour, V.*, Qualls, C.D., & Hammer, C.S. (2003).  Co-occurring disorders in children who stutter.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 427-448.
  • Hammer, C.S., Miccio, A.W., & Wagstaff, D.  (2003). Home literacy experiences and their relationship to bilingual preschoolers’ developing English literacy abilities. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 20-30.  PMCID: PMC4551497
  • Qualls, C.D., O’Brien, R.*, Blood, G.W., & Hammer, C.S.  (2003).  Contextual variation, familiarity, academic literacy, and rural adolescents’ idiom knowledge.  Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 69-79.
  • Qualls, C.D., Treaster, B.*, Blood, G.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2003).  Lexicalization of idioms in urban fifth graders: A reaction time study.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 245-261. 
  • Blood, G.W., Blood, R., Hammer, C.S., & Qualls, C.D. (2002).  Occupational stress in SLPs working in health care settings.  Journal of Medical Speech Language Pathology, 10, 201-212. 
  • Blood, G.W., Swavely, J.*, Thomas, A.*, Blood, R., Qualls, C.D., & Hammer, C.S. (2002).  Job Satisfaction among SLPs working in public school and healthcare settings: A national survey.  Language Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 33, 252-270.
  • Blood, G. W., Thomas, A.*, Ridenour, V.*, Qualls, C.D., & Hammer, C.S. (2002).  Job stress in speech language pathologists working in rural, suburban and urban schools.  Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 29, 132-140.
  • Hammer, C. S. (2002).  The environment and specific language impairment in children.  Nodisk Tidsskrift for Spesialpedagogikk, 2-3, 133-138 (Nordic Journal of Special Needs Education)
  • Hammer, C.S., Pennock-Roman, M., Rzasa, S.*, & Tomblin, J.B.  (2002). An analysis of the Test of Language Development-Primary for item bias.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 274-284. 
  • Miccio, A. W., Hammer, C.S., Toribio, A.J. (2002).  Linguistics and speech-language pathology: Combining knowledge to meet the needs of bilingual children.  Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT- Selected Papers). (pp. 234-251).  Georgetown, MD: Georgetown University Press.
  • Hammer, C.S., Tomblin, J.B., Zhang, X., & Weiss, A. L. (2001).  Parenting behaviors and their association to SLI in children.  International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36, 185-205.
  • Vernon-Feagans, L. Hammer, C.S., Miccio, A.W., & Manlove, E. (2001).  Early literacy in low income and bilingual children.  In S. Neuman, & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook on research in early literacy (pp. 192-210).  NY: Guilford Publications.
  • Hammer, C.S.  (2000). “Come sit down and let mama read”: Book-reading interactions between African-American mothers and their infants.  In J. Harris, A. Kamhi, & K. Pollock (Eds.), Literacy in African American Communities (pp. 21-44).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Hammer, C. S. (2000). “We did that Study Already”: Issues in recruiting African American and Hispanic participants for research.  Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 27, 127-135.
  • Hammer, C.S. & Weiss, A.L.  (2000).   African American mothers' views about their infants’ language development.  American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 9, 126-140.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Weiss, A. L. (1999).  Guiding language development: How African American mothers and their infants structure play interactions.  Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 42, 1219-1233.
  • Tomblin, J.B., Hammer, C.S., & Zhang, X. (1998).  The association of parental tobacco use and SLI.  International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 33, 357-368.
  • Hammer, C.S. (1998).  Toward a 'Thick Description' of families:  Using ethnography to overcome the obstacles to providing family-centered services.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9, 1-22. 
  • Zebrowski, P.M., Weiss, A.L., Savelkoul, E.M., & Hammer, C.S. (1996).  The effect of maternal rate reduction on speech rates and linguistic productions of children who stutter.  Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 10, 189-210.
  • Hammer, C.S. (1994).  Working with families of Chamorro and Carolinian Cultures.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 3 (4), 5-12.
  • Cheng, L. & Hammer, C.S. (1992).  Cultural Perceptions of Disabilities. San Diego:  Los Amigos Research Associates. 
  • Cheng, L. & Hammer, C.S. (1992).  The Use of an Interpreter/Translator. San Diego:  Los Amigos Research Associates

Commissioned Papers and Reports

  • Hammer, C.S., Gillanders, C., Hoff, E., & Uchikoshi, Y. (2011).  Critical research review: Language and literacy development of dual language learners.  Report for the Center for Early and Education Research Center – Dual Language Learners funded by DHHS- Administration for Children and Families. 
  • Aikens, N., Hammer, C.S., Xue, Y., West, J., López, L., Botezatu, M.R., & Caronongan, P. (2010). Dual Language Learners Participating In Head Start and Early Head Start Programs: Their Families, Program Experiences, and Developmental Outcomes. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research.  Report will serve as the basis of a report to Congress on Dual Language Learners in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs.
  • Aikens, N., Hammer, C.S., López, L., Xue, Y & West, J. (2009).  Study on the Status of Limited English Proficient Children Participating in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research.  Prepared for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2009). Dual Language Learners’ Early Language Development and Academic Outcomes. The Role of Language in Academics.  Prepared for the National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Palo Alto, CA.


  • Hammer, C.S. (2012).  Do Demographic and Cultural Differences Exist in Adulthood? American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 181-182.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2012).  Responding to reviews.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 87-88.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2012).  More than just talk. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 1-2.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2011).  Increasing the focus on the demographics of participants. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 261.
  • Hammer, C.S., (2011).  Expanding Our Knowledge Base Through Qualitative Research.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 161-162.
  • Hammer C.S., (2011).  Broadening Our Knowledge About Diverse Populations. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 70-71.
  • Hammer, C.S., (2011).  Beginning the 20th Volume. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 1. 


  • Miccio, A.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2005).  Phonological development of Head Start children of Puerto Rican descent.  Proceedings: Head Start's 7th National Research Conference (pp. 373-374).  McLean, VA: Xtria, LLC.
  • Miccio, A.W., Tabors, P.O., Páez, M.A., Hammer, C.S., & Wagstaff, D.A.  (2005).  Vocabulary development in Spanish-speaking Head Start children of Puerto Rican descent.  In Cohen, J., McAlister, K., Rolstad, K., & MacSwan, J. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
  • Tabors, P.O. Espinosa, L.M., López, L., Páez, M., Miccio, A.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2005). Spanish-speaking children in Head Start classrooms: What is gained? What is lost? Promoting positive development in young children: Proceedings of Head Start’s 7th National Research Conference (pp. 371).
  • Miccio, A.W., López, L.M., & Hammer, C.S.  (2003).  Bilingual phonological acquisition of preschool children of Puerto Rican descent.  In M.J. Solé, D. Recasens, and J. Romero (Eds.).  Proceedings of the XV International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 1549-1552).  Adelaide, Australia: Causal Productions Pty Ltd.
  • Weiss, A.L., Zebrowski, P.M., & Hammer, C.S. (1995).  Concomitant changes in language associated with changes in speech rate: Evidence from five mother-child dyads.  In International Fluency Association (Eds.), First World Congress on Fluency Disorders Proceedings, Vol. I. (pp. 218-221).  Nijmegin, Netherlands: University Press.

Invited Articles in Professional Periodicals/Newsletters

  • Hammer, C.S. (2004).  Assessing Latino children’s literacy activities.  Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 11(2), 15-20.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2004).  Parental beliefs about literacy learning in non-majority households: Information Relevant for Speech-language pathologists, Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 11 (3), 17-22. 
  • Hammer, C.S., & Miccio, A.W. (2001).  Biliteracy: A pairing of research and funding: Bilingual preschoolers.  ASHA Leader, 6, 6-7.
  • Hammer, C.S. (1994).  A case study in facilitating semantic and pragmatic abilities through joint action routines.  Clinical Connection 8 (1), 10-13.