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Developing Language and Literacy Laboratory


* = Student author

  • Cycyk, L.* & Hammer, C.S. (in press). Beliefs, Values, and Practices of Mexican Immigrant Families: Towards Language and Learning in Toddlerhood: Setting the Foundation for Early Childhood Education.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
  • Mendez, L. I., Hammer, C.S., Lopez, L., & Blair, C. (in press). Examining language and early numeracy skills in young Latino dual language learners. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
  • Hammer, C.S., Sawyer, B.S. & Cycyk, L.* (in press). Madres educando a sus niños: Integrating culture into intervention. In S.Sonnenschein & B.S. Sawyer (Eds.). Building on Black and Latino Families’ Strengths to Support the Early Academic Development of Their Children. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Limlingan, M. C. (in press). How bilingualism affects children’s language development. D. Castro & A. Artiles (Eds.), Language, learning, and disability: Issues, Opportunities in the education of young bilingual children. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.
  • Willard, J., Cycyk, L., Bitetti, D. & Hammer, C.S. (in press). Mothers’ depressive symptoms and their children’s Turkish heritage language vocabulary development. International Journal of Bilingualism
  • Hammer, C. S., & Edmonds, L. A. (2019). Bilingualism in clinical linguistics. In A. De Houwer & L. Ortega (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of bilingualism (pp. 369–389). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sawyer, B.E., Cycyk, L.M., Sandilos, L., & Hammer, C.S. (2018). “So many books they don’t even all fit on the bookshelf”: An examination of low-income and ethnic minority mothers’ home literacy practices, beliefs, and influencing factors. Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 18 (3), 331-372. doi: 10.1177/1468798416667542 [First published online September 2016.]. 
  • Sawyer, B.S., Atkins-Burnett, S., E. Sandilos, L., Hammer, C.S., López, L., & Clancy Blair (2018). Variations in Classroom Language Environments of Preschool Children who are Low-Income and Linguistically Diverse, Early Education and Development,29, 398-416.
  • Hammer, C.S., Morgan, P., Farkas, G., Maczuga, S., Hillemeier, M., & Bitetti, D.* (2017).  A population-based study of late talkers’ school readiness.  Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 60, 607-626.  
  • Bitetti, D. & Hammer, C.S. (2016). The Home Literacy Environment and the English Narrative Development of Spanish-English Bilingual Children.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 59, 1159–1171.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Sawyer, B. (2016). Development of a Culturally Responsive Book Reading Intervention for Latina Mothers and their Head Stat Children. National Head Start Association Dialog, 18 (4), 123-128.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Sawyer, B. (2016). Effects of a Culturally Responsive Interactive Book-Reading Intervention on the Language Abilities of Preschool Dual Language Learners: A Pilot Study.  National Head Start Association Dialog, 18 (4), 59-79.
  • Morgan, P., Hammer, C.S., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M., Maczuga, S., Cook, M., & Morano, S. (2016). Who receives speech/language services by five years of age in the U.S.? American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 25, 183-199.  doi:10.1044/2015_AJSLP-14-0201
  • Lewis, K., Hammer, C.S., Sandilos, L., Sawyer, B. & Mendez, L. (2016).  Relations among the home language and literacy environment and children's language abilities: A study of Head Start Dual Language Learners and their mothers. Early Education and Development, 27, 478-494.
  • Sawyer, B., Hammer, C.S., Cycyk, L., López, L., Blair, C., Sandilos, L., & Komaroff, E (2016). Teachers' language and literacy practices with dual language learners. Bilingual Research Journal, 39 (1), 35-49.  doi: 10.1080/15235882.2016.1138904
  • Sandilos, L.*, Lewis, K.*, Komaroff, E., Hammer, C.S., Rodriguez, B., López, L., & Goldstein, B., (2015).  Analysis of bilingual children’s performance on the English and Spanish versions of the Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey-R (WMLS-R).  Language Assessment Quarterly: An International Journal, 12, 386-408.
  • Cycyk, L.*, Hammer, C.S., & Bitetti, D.* (2015). Maternal depressive symptomatology, social support, and language development of low-income bilingual children. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 24, 411-425.
  • Morgan, P., Farkas, G., Hillimeier, M , Hammer, C.S., & Maczaga, S. (2015).Early vocabulary knowledge and its relation to school readiness. Child Development, 86, 1351-1370.
  • Sandilos, L.*, Cycyk, L.*, Hammer, C.S., Sawyer, B., Lopez, L., & Blair, C. ( 2015). Depression, control, and climate: An examination of factors impacting teaching quality in preschool classrooms. Early Education and Development, 26, 1111-1127.
  • Hindman, A., Snell, E., Wasik, B., Lewis, K.*, Hammer, C.S., Iannone-Campbell, C. (2015). Research and practice partnerships for professional development in early childhood: Lessons from ExCELL-e.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk.
  • Hammer, C.S., Hoff, E., Uchikoshi, Y., Gillanders, C. & Sandilos, L.* (2014). The Language and Literacy Development of Young Dual Language Learners: A Critical Review. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 715-733. PMCID:  PMC4394382
  • Buysse, V., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Páez, M, Hammer, C.S., & Knowles, M.* (2014). Effects of Early Education Programs and Practices on the Development and Learning of Dual Language Learners: A Review of the Literature.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 29, 765-785.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2014). Life is Hard, but I’m trying:” Understanding the Lives of the Families Speech-Language Pathologists Serve (pp. 207-218).  In M. Ball (Ed.), Handbook in qualitative research in communication disorders.
  • Mason, L.H., Davison, M.D.*, Hammer, C.S., & Miller, C.A. (2013). Knowledge and language outcomes for a reading comprehension and writing intervention. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 26, 1133-1158.
  • Davison, M.D.*, & Hammer, C.S. (2012). Development of 14 English Grammatical Morphemes in Spanish-English Preschoolers. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 26, 728-742.  PMCID: PMC3524526
  • Hammer, C.S. (2012). Dual language learners’ language development: A range of possibilities. Young Exceptional Children Monograph Series, 14, 1-14.
  • Hammer, C.S., Komaroff, E., Rodríguez, B., L, L., Scarpino, S., & Goldstein, B. (2012). Predicting Spanish-English Bilingual Children’s Language Abilities. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 55, 1251-1264. PMCID: PMC3524528
  • Hammer, C.S., & Rodríguez, B. (2012). Bilingual language acquisition and the child socialization process (pp. 31-46).  In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Bilingual development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers (2nd Ed). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishers.
  • Davison, M.D.*, Hammer, C.S., & Lawrence, F.R., (2011). Associations between Preschool Language and First Grade Reading Outcomes in Bilingual Children. Journal of Communication Disorders, 44, 444-458. PMCID: PMC3138808
  • Hammer, C.S., Jia, G., & Uchikoshi, Y. (2011). Language and Literacy Development of Dual Language Learners Growing Up in the United States: A Call for Research. Child Development Perspectives, 5, 4-9. PMCID: PMC3524578
  • Hammer, C.S., Rodríguez, B.L., Davison, M.D.*, Lawrence, F.L., & Miccio, A.W. (2011). Changes in Language Usage of Puerto Rican Mothers and Their Children: Do Gender and Timing of Exposure to English Matter? Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 275-297. PMCID: PMC3524524
  • Hammer, C.S., Scarpino, S., & Davison, M.D.* (2011). Beginning with language:  Spanish-English Bilingual Preschoolers’ Early Literacy Development (pp. 118-135).  Dickinson, D., & Neuman, S. (Eds.), Handbook on research in early literacy (Vol. 3).  NY: Guilford Publications.
  • Scarpino, S.*, Davison, M.*, & Hammer, C.S. (2011). Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children`s Phonological Awareness Abilities from their Growth in English and Spanish Oral Language. Journal of Research in Reading, 34, 77-93.
  • Hammer, C.S., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2010). The language and literacy development of Head Start children: A study using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database.  Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 41, 70-83.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Rodríguez, B. (2010). Individual differences in bilingual children’s language competencies: The case for Spanish and English. In A.L. Weiss (Ed.). Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders (57-80). New York, NY:  Psychology Press.
  • Hammer, C.S., Davison, M.D.*, Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2009). The effect of home language on bilingual children’s vocabulary and emergent literacy development during Head Start and kindergarten.  Scientific Studies of Reading - Special Issue, 13 (2), 99-121.   PMCID: PMC3627728
  • Miccio, A.W., Hammer, C.S. & Rodríguez, B.L. (2009). Code-switching and language disorders in young bilingual children (pp. 241-252). In J. Toribio & B. Bullock (Eds.), Handbook on linguistic code-switching. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rodríguez, B., Hammer, C.S., & Lawrence, F.R. (2009). Parent reading belief inventory: Reliability and validity with a sample of Mexican-American families. Early Education and Development, 20, 826-844.  PMCID: PMC3536018
  • Hammer, C.S., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2008). The effect of summer vacation on bilingual preschoolers' language development.  Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 22 (9), 686-902.
  • Hammer, C.S., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2008). Exposure to English before and after entry into Head Start:  Bilingual Children’s Receptive Language Growth in Spanish and English.  International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11 (1), 30-56.
  • Durham, R.*, Farkas, G., Hammer, C.S., Tomblin, J.B., & Catts, H.W. (2007). Kindergarten oral language skill: A key variable in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic status.  Research in Social Stratification and Mobility, 25, 294-305.
  • Hammer, C.S., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W. (2007). Bilingual Children's Language Abilities and Reading Outcomes in Head Start and Kindergarten.  Language, Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 237-248.
  • Hammer, C.S., Rodríguez, B.L., Lawrence, F.R., & Miccio, A.W., (2007). Puerto Rican mothers’ beliefs and home literacy practices.  Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38, 216-224. PMCID: PMC3535495
  • Hammer, C.S., & Miccio, A.W. (2006). Early Language and Reading Development of Bilingual Preschoolers from Low-Income Families.  Topics in Language Disorders, 26 (4), 302-317.  SUBMITTED TO NIH
  • Hammer, C.S., Nimmo, D.*, Cohen, R.,* Draheim, H.*, & Johnson, A.* (2005). Book Reading Interactions Between African American and Puerto Rican Head Start Children and Their Mothers.  Journal of Early Childhood Literacy, 5(3), 195-227.
  • Hewitt, L., Hammer, C.S., Yont, C.*, & Tomblin, J.B. (2005). Language sampling for kindergarten children with and without SLI: Mean length of utterance, IPSYN, and NDW. Journal of Communication Disorders, 38, 197-213.
  • Fallon, K.*, Light, J., McNaughton, D., Drager, K., & Hammer, C.S. (2004). The Effects of Direct Instruction on the Single-Word Reading Skills of Children Who Require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 1424-1439.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Miccio, A.W. (2004).  Home literacy experiences of Latino families. In B. Wasik (Ed.), Handbook of family literacy.  Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Hammer, C.S., Detwiler, J.*, Blood, G.W., Qualls, C., & Detwiler, J. (2004). Speech-language pathologists' training and confidence in serving Spanish-English bilingual children.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 37, 91-108.  
  • Hammer, C.S., Miccio, A.W., & Rodríguez, B. (2004). Bilingual language acquisition and the child socialization process. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish-English speakers.  Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Qualls, C.D., Lantz, J.,* Pietryz, L. * Blood, G. & Hammer, C.S. (2004).  Comprehension of idioms in adolescents with language-based learning disabilities compared to their typically developing peers.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 37, 295-311.
  • Blood, G.W., Ridenour, V.*, Qualls, C.D., & Hammer, C.S. (2003). Co-occurring disorders in children who stutter.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 427-448.
  • Hammer, C.S., Miccio, A.W., & Wagstaff, D. (2003). Home literacy experiences and their relationship to bilingual preschoolers’ developing English literacy abilities. Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 20-30.  PMCID: PMC4551497
  • Qualls, C.D., O’Brien, R.*, Blood, G.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2003).  Contextual variation, familiarity, academic literacy, and rural adolescents’ idiom knowledge.  Language Speech and Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 69-79.
  • Qualls, C.D., Treaster, B.*, Blood, G.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2003). Lexicalization of idioms in urban fifth graders: A reaction time study.  Journal of Communication Disorders, 36, 245-261.
  • Blood, G.W., Blood, R., Hammer, C.S., & Qualls, C.D. (2002). Occupational stress in SLPs working in health care settings.  Journal of Medical Speech Language Pathology, 10, 201-212.
  • Blood, G.W., Swavely, J.*, Thomas, A.*, Blood, R., Qualls, C.D., & Hammer, C.S. (2002). Job Satisfaction among SLPs working in public school and healthcare settings: A national survey.  Language Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 33, 252-270.
  • Blood, G. W., Thomas, A.*, Ridenour, V.*, Qualls, C.D., & Hammer, C.S. (2002). Job stress in speech language pathologists working in rural, suburban and urban schools.  Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 29, 132-140.
  • Hammer, C. S. (2002). The environment and specific language impairment in children.  Nodisk Tidsskrift for Spesialpedagogikk, 2-3, 133-138 (Nordic Journal of Special Needs Education).
  • Hammer, C.S., Pennock-Roman, M., Rzasa, S.*, & Tomblin, J.B. (2002). An analysis of the Test of Language Development-Primary for item bias.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11, 274-284.
  • Miccio, A. W., Hammer, C.S., Toribio, A.J. (2002). Linguistics and speech-language pathology: Combining knowledge to meet the needs of bilingual children.  Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics (GURT- Selected Papers). (pp. 234-251).  Georgetown, MD: Georgetown University Press.
  • Hammer, C.S., Tomblin, J.B., Zhang, X., & Weiss, A. L. (2001). Parenting behaviors and their association to SLI in children.  International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 36, 185-205.
  • Vernon-Feagans, L. Hammer, C.S., Miccio, A.W., & Manlove, E. (2001). Early literacy in low income and bilingual children.  In S. Neuman, & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook on research in early literacy (pp. 192-210).  NY: Guilford Publications.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2000). “Come sit down and let mama read”: Book-reading interactions between African-American mothers and their infants.  In J. Harris, A. Kamhi, & K. Pollock (Eds.), Literacy in African American Communities (pp. 21-44).  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Hammer, C. S. (2000). “We did that Study Already”: Issues in recruiting African American and Hispanic participants for research. Contemporary Issues in Communication Science and Disorders, 27, 127-135.
  • Hammer, C.S. & Weiss, A.L. (2000).   African American mothers' views about their infants’ language development.  American Journal of Speech Language Pathology, 9, 126-140.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Weiss, A. L. (1999). Guiding language development: How African American mothers and their infants structure play interactions.  Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 42, 1219-1233.
  • Tomblin, J.B., Hammer, C.S., & Zhang, X. (1998). The association of parental tobacco use and SLI.  International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 33, 357-368.
  • Hammer, C.S. (1998). Toward a 'Thick Description' of families:  Using ethnography to overcome the obstacles to providing family-centered services.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 9, 1-22.
  • Zebrowski, P.M., Weiss, A.L., Savelkoul, E.M., & Hammer, C.S. (1996). The effect of maternal rate reduction on speech rates and linguistic productions of children who stutter.  Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 10, 189-210.
  • Hammer, C.S. (1994). Working with families of Chamorro and Carolinian Cultures.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 3 (4), 5-12.
  • Cheng, L. & Hammer, C.S. (1992). Cultural Perceptions of Disabilities. San Diego:  Los Amigos Research Associates.
  • Cheng, L. & Hammer, C.S. (1992). The Use of an Interpreter/Translator. San Diego:  Los Amigos Research Associates


Commissioned Papers and Reports

  • Hammer, C.S., Gillanders, C., Hoff, E., & Uchikoshi, Y. (2011). Critical research review: Language and literacy development of dual language learners.  Report for the Center for Early and Education Research Center – Dual Language Learners funded by DHHS- Administration for Children and Families.
  • Aikens, N., Hammer, C.S., Xue, Y., West, J., López, L., Botezatu, M.R., & Caronongan, P. (2010). Dual Language Learners Participating In Head Start and Early Head Start Programs: Their Families, Program Experiences, and Developmental Outcomes. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research. Report will serve as the basis of a report to Congress on Dual Language Learners in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs.
  • Aikens, N., Hammer, C.S., López, L., Xue, Y & West, J. (2009). Study on the Status of Limited English Proficient Children Participating in Head Start and Early Head Start Programs. Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research.  Prepared for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2009). Dual Language Learners’ Early Language Development and Academic Outcomes. The Role of Language in Academics. Prepared for the National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Palo Alto, CA.



  • Hammer, C.S. (2012). Do Demographic and Cultural Differences Exist in Adulthood? American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 181-182.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2012). Responding to reviews.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 87-88.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2012). More than just talk. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21, 1-2.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2011). Increasing the focus on the demographics of participants. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 261.
  • Hammer, C.S., (2011). Expanding Our Knowledge Base Through Qualitative Research.  American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 161-162.
  • Hammer C.S., (2011). Broadening Our Knowledge About Diverse Populations. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 70-71.
  • Hammer, C.S., (2011). Beginning the 20th Volume. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 20, 1.



  • Miccio, A.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2005). Phonological development of Head Start children of Puerto Rican descent.  Proceedings: Head Start's 7th National Research Conference (pp. 373-374).  McLean, VA: Xtria, LLC.
  • Miccio, A.W., Tabors, P.O., Páez, M.A., Hammer, C.S., & Wagstaff, D.A. (2005).  Vocabulary development in Spanish-speaking Head Start children of Puerto Rican descent.  In Cohen, J., McAlister, K., Rolstad, K., & MacSwan, J. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press.
  • Tabors, P.O. Espinosa, L.M., López, L., Páez, M., Miccio, A.W., & Hammer, C.S. (2005). Spanish-speaking children in Head Start classrooms: What is gained? What is lost? Promoting positive development in young children: Proceedings of Head Start’s 7th National Research Conference (pp. 371).
  • Miccio, A.W., López, L.M., & Hammer, C.S. (2003).  Bilingual phonological acquisition of preschool children of Puerto Rican descent.  In M.J. Solé, D. Recasens, and J. Romero (Eds.).  Proceedings of the XV International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (pp. 1549-1552).  Adelaide, Australia: Causal Productions Pty Ltd.
  • Weiss, A.L., Zebrowski, P.M., & Hammer, C.S. (1995). Concomitant changes in language associated with changes in speech rate: Evidence from five mother-child dyads.  In International Fluency Association (Eds.), First World Congress on Fluency Disorders Proceedings, Vol. I. (pp. 218-221).  Nijmegin, Netherlands: University Press.


Invited Articles in Professional Periodicals/Newsletters

  • Hammer, C.S. (2004). Assessing Latino children’s literacy activities.  Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 11(2), 15-20.
  • Hammer, C.S. (2004). Parental beliefs about literacy learning in non-majority households: Information Relevant for Speech-language pathologists, Perspectives on Language Learning and Education, 11 (3), 17-22.
  • Hammer, C.S., & Miccio, A.W. (2001). Biliteracy: A pairing of research and funding: Bilingual preschoolers.  ASHA Leader, 6, 6-7.
  • Hammer, C.S. (1994). A case study in facilitating semantic and pragmatic abilities through joint action routines.  Clinical Connection 8 (1), 10-13.