(D) Research on Education and National Development

(D) Research on Education and National Development


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Tsang, M. 

Education and national development in China since 1949: Oscillating policies and enduring dilemmas (in English) [ China Review , 2000, pp. 579-618.]

This is an essay on education and national development in China since 1949. It attempts to provide a critical review of major educational policies and their shifts over time in the contexts of changing socio-economic and political development in the country. It concentrates on three tasks: (1) explaining the origin of major educational policies and assessing the intended and unintended effects of such policies on educational development; (2) identifying the links between shifts in educational policies and changes in the external development contexts for education; and (3) highlighting the impact on educational policy of the relationship between the CCP, the State, and civil society. The review is organized into two parts. The first part presents a concise overview of major educational policies in various periods in post-1949 China and relates them to conflicts within the CCP and to changing national-development contexts. The second part provides a more detailed case study of four specific educational issues: the structural reform of secondary education, financial reform and government investment in education, choice and privatization in basic schooling, and the appropriate scale of higher education.



Xiao, J. & Tsang, M. 

The determinants of on-the-job training and adult education (in English) [Accepted for publication in Human Resource Development Quarterly .]

In the fast-growing market-oriented economy in Shenzhen, China, employers have continued to provide on-the-job training to a large number of employees since the 1980s. Employees have also pursued self-financed adult education programs outside firms. This study used a two-stage probit model to estimate the determinants of on-the-job training and adult education, and their impact on technical proficiency. This study also estimated the inter-relationship of receiving on-the-job training and attending adult education with a bivariate probit model. Analysis revealed that technological change in the workplace was the most influential factor in seeking continuing learning and that both on-the-job training and adult education contributed to improved technical proficiency. Firms- decision on providing training to workers and individual decision on attending adult education influenced each other.



Xiao, J. & Tsang, M. 

Human capital development in an emerging economy: The experience of Shenzhen, China (in English) [ China Quarterly ]

This is a study of how human capital is developed to support economic growth in a fast-changing fast-growing area in China. It is based on a detailed analysis of the education and training paths of employees in the workplace, involving alternative forms of human-capital development. The study employs the reverse-tracer study technique to survey the workplace in Shenzhen and collects information from 4002 employees. It finds that: (1) human-capital development in Shenzhen is characterized by an integrated tripartite system of formal schooling, employer-provided training, and adult education outside the workplace; (2) economic changes increase the demand for on-the-job training and adult education; (3) there is complementality between on-the-job training and adult education; (4) the opportunity for on-the-job training is related to the level of schooling; and (5) for female employees, additional adult education provides the opportunity to lessen the disadvantages they face in formal schooling.



Xiao, J. 

The determinants of earnings in Shenzhen (in English)  [ Economics of Education Review.]

Using 1996 surveyed data of 1,023 employees in Shenzhen, China, this study estimated the effects of three forms of human capital on employee salary, namely formal education, on-the-job training provided by employers, and adult education pursued by employees. Using a hierarchical linear model, the analysis estimated employee monthly salary growth over a maximum of six years due to (a) such temporal factors as work experience and improved performance, (b) individual-level characteristics, and (c) firm-level characteristics. This study found that (a) pre-work formal education was positively associated with salary only at hiring, (b) employees- experience in changing production technology as well as on-the-job training were positively associated with salary increases through improved technical proficiency, formal education was not; (c) manufacturing firms introduced more new production technology than the service sector and provided more on-the-job training, thus improving workers' performance and increasing their salary.



Gu, M. 

My educational exploration: Selected education writings of Gu Mingyuan (in Chinese) [ Educational Science Press, China]

This book contains selected education writings of Professor Gu Mingyuan of Beijing Normal University, one of the most respected educators and scholars in China today. It presents Professor Gu's views and ideas on education and development in China. His analysis covers many areas in Chinese education (including basic education, vocational-technical education, higher education, teacher education, and educational technology) and in comparative education.



Tsang, M. 

Economic analysis of educational development in developing nations. In Guthrie, J. (ed.)  Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd edition . Macmillan. (in English) [ Tsang, M, ]

This article is prepared for the forthcoming second edition of the Encyclopedia of Education. It presents the key concepts, applications, and issues in the economic analysis of educational development in developing nations. Based on a multi-dimensional conception of efficiency, it organizes the literature review under two categories: studies related to internal efficiency, and studies related to external efficiency. The article is a concise general overview of the subject intended for non-specialists.



Yu Zhang

Dissertation: The Determinants of National College Entrance Examination: With an Analysis of Private Tutoring



Wallace Linri Wang

Dissertation: Family socioeconomic status, college education and earnings in China



Yu Zhang and Mun Tsang

Gender gap in the National College Entrance Exam performance in China: a case study of a typical Chinese municipality



Xin Gong, Yanqing Ding and Mun Tsang

Gender differences of academic performance in compulsory education in rural Southwestern China



Congbin Guo, Mun Tsang, and Xiaohao Ding

Gender disparities in science and engineering in Chinese higher education 


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