Carter, Robert T. (rtc10)Skip to content Skip to main navigation
Licensed Psychologist. University of the State of New York, 1991.
Ph.D., Counseling Psychology, University of Maryland (APA approved), 1987.
Ed.M., Psychological Counseling, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1981.
M.A., Psychological Counseling and Rehabilitation, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1980.
B.A., Psychology, Columbia University, 1977.
Carter, R.T., Muchow, C, &, Pieterse, A.L., (2017) Construct and predictive validity and measurement equivalence of the RBTSSS with Black Americans Traumatology, (On-Line First, September 2017)
Carter R. T., & Lau M. Y., Kirkinis, K., & Johnson, V., (2017) Racial discrimination and health outcomes among racial-ethnic minorities: A meta-analytic review 2000-2011, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 45,232-259.
Carter, R.T., & Muchow, C. (2017) Construct validity of the race-based traumatic stress symptom scale and tests of measurement equivalence Psychological Trauma: Theory, Policy, Research, and Practice 9(6), 688-695.
Carter, R.T., Johnson, V., Roberson, K., Mazzula, S.M., Kirkinis, K., & Sant-Barket, S (2017) Race-based traumatic stress, Racial Identity Status, and Psychological functioning: An exploratory investigation Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 48 (1), 20-37.
Carter, R.T., Johnson, V., Muchow, C., Lyons, J., Forquer, & E., Galgay, C (2016) The development of classes of racism measures for frequency and stress reactions: Relationships to race-based traumatic symptoms, Traumatology, 22(1), 63-74.
Campon-Rangel, B., & Carter R.T., (2015) The appropriated racial oppression scale: Development and preliminary validation, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(4), 497-506.
Cheng, P., Carter, R.T., & Lee, D., (2015) Racial identity status attitudes and acculturation of Korean and Chinese Americans: Criterion-Related Profile Analyses Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development 43 (2), 97-108.
Carter, R.T. & Sant-Barket (2015) Assessment of the impact of racial discrimination and racism: How to use the race-based traumatic stress symptom scale in practice, Traumatology, (On-Line 12.1.14), 21(1), 32-39.
Forsyth, J., Hall, S, & Carter, R.T., (2015). The application of Helms’ racial identity status theory to Black west Indian Americans. Professional Psychology: Research and practice (Online 10.13.14), 46 (2), 124-131.
Forsyth, J., & Carter, R.T., (2014). The development and preliminary validation of the racism-related coping scale. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Policy, Research, and Practice, 6(6), 632-643.
Siegel, M., & Carter, R.T., (2014) Emotions and White racial identity status attitudes Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 42 (3), 218-231.
Carter, R.T., Oyler, C., Schlessinger, S., McIntosh-Allen, K., Caraballo, L, (2014). Understanding diversity: First steps toward understanding climates for diversity in educational institutions Teachers College Record-On Line Research Note.
Carter, R.T. & Mazzula, S., (2013) Race and racial identity status attitudes: Mock-jury decision making in racial discrimination cases, Journal of Ethnicity and Criminal Justice, 11, 1-22.
Carter, R.T., Mazzula, S., Victoria, R., Vazquez, R., Hall, S., Smith, S., Sant-Barket, S., Forsyth, J., Bazelais, K, & Williams, B. (2013). The development of the race-based traumatic stress symptom scale Psychological Trauma: Theory, Policy, Research, and Practice, 5(1), 1-9.
Pieterse, A. Carter, R.T. & Ray, E., (2013) The relationship between perceived racism, perceived stress, and psychological functioning among Black American women, Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 41, 36-46.
Carter, R.T. & Scheuermann, T.D., (2012) Legal and policy standards for addressing workplace racism: Employer liability and shared responsibility for race-based traumatic stress. University of Maryland Law Journal of Race, Religion, Gender and Class, 12 (1), 1-100.
Forsyth, J., & Carter, R.T., (2012) The Influence of racial identity status attitudes and racism-related coping on mental health among Black Americans, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 18(2), 128-140.
Pieterse A. L., Todd, N., Neville, H.A., & Carter, R.T., (2012) Perceived racism and mental health among Black Americans: A Meta-Analytic Review Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 1-9.
Carter, R.T., & Cha, N., (2011). Stress, emotions and psychological impact of discrimination, Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 11 (4), 35-51.
Carter R. T., & Reynolds A.L., (2011) Race-related stress, racial identity statuses and emotional reactions of Black Americans Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology,17 (2), 156-162.
Carter R. T., & Forsyth J. M., (2010) Reactions to Racial Discrimination: Emotional Stress and Help-Seeking Behaviors Psychological Trauma: Theory, Policy, Research, and Practice, 2(3), 183-191.
Pieterse, A. L., Carter R.T., Evans S. E., & Waters R., (2010) An examination of the relationship between racial/ethnic discrimination, and trauma-related symptoms in a college student population Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 255-263.
Pieterse A. L., & Carter, R.T., (2010) The role of racial identity in perceived racism and psychological stress among Black American adults: Exploring traditional and alternative approaches. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 (5), 1028–1063.
Mazzula, S., Hage, S., & Carter, R.T., (2010). Religious self-identification and cultural values in Black and White Americans. Mental Health, Culture, and Religion, 13(2), 111 – 128.
Pieterse A. L., & Carter, R.T., (2010) An exploratory investigation of the relationship between racism, racial identity, perceptions of health, and health locus of control among Black American women. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 21, 334-348.
Carter, R.T. & Helms, J.A. (2009) Racism and race-based traumatic stress: Toward new legal and clinical standards. Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 9(5), 113-129.
Carter R. T., & Forsyth J. M., (2009) A guide to the forensic assessment of race-based traumatic stress reactions. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 37, 28-40.
Yeh C. J., Chang, T., Chiang L., Carter R.T., Drost C. M., Spelliscy, D., & Chang Y., (2008) Development, content, process and outcome of an online peer supervision group for counselor trainees. Computers and Human Behavior, 24(6), 2889-2903.
Carter, R.T. Pieterse A.L., & Smith, S. (2008) Racial identity statuses profiles and expressions of Anger in Black Americans: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 36(2), 101-112.
Carter, R.T., Yeh, C.J. & Mazzula, S., (2008) Hispanic cultural values and racial identity status attitudes. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 30(1), 5-23
Carter, R. T., Forsyth, J., Williams, B. & Mazzula, S. (2007). Does racism predict psychological harm or injury: Mental health and legal Implications. Law Enforcement Executive Forum, 7(5),129-154.
Carter, R. T., & Forsyth, J., (2007) The examination of race and culture in psychology journals: The case of forensic psychology Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38(2),133-142.
Pieterse, A. L., & Carter, R. T., (2007) An examination of the relationship between general life stress, racism-related stress and psychological health among Black men. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 54 (1), 101-109.
Franklin-Jackson, D.C. & Carter, R.T. (2007) Race related stress, racial identity and psychological health for Black Americans. Journal of Black Psychology,33(1), 1-22.
Carter, R. T. (2007) Racism and psychological and emotional injury: Recognizing and assessing race-based traumatic stress. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 13-105.
Carter, R. T. (2007) Clarification and purpose of the race-based traumatic stress model: A Rejoinder. The Counseling Psychologist, 35(1), 101-110.
Carter, R. T., (2006) Race-based traumatic stress. Psychiatric Times, 23(14) 37-38.
Carter, R.T. & Pieterse, A., (under contract). Measuring the effects of racism: Guidelines for the assessment and treatment of race-based traumatic stress injury. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.
Carter, R.T. & Scheuermann, T.D., (under contract). Confronting racism: Integrating mental health strategies with legal reform. Routledge, New York, NY.
Carter, R.T. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Theory and research (Vol. 1). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Carter, R.T. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of racial-cultural psychology and counseling: Training and practice (Vol. 2). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Wallace, B. C., & Carter, R.T., (Eds.). (2003). Understanding and dealing with violence: A multicultural approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Carter, R. T. (Ed.). (2000). Addressing cultural issues in organizations: Beyond the corporate context. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sue, D. W., Carter, R. T., Casas, M. J., Fouad, N. A., Ivey, A. E., LaFromboise, T., Manese, J. E., Ponterotto, J., & Vazquez-Natall, E. (1998). Multicultural counseling competencies: Individual professional and organizational development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Thompson, C. E. & Carter, R. T. (Eds.) (2013). Racial identity development theory: Applications to individual, group and organizations. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Carter, R. T. (1995). The influence of race and racial identity in the psychotherapy process: Toward a racially inclusive model. New York, NY: Wiley.
Sage Publication Award - For Editorial Leadership (August, 2005).
An award presented at the American Psychological Association Convention - For "his contribution to making The Counseling Psychologist the second highest ranked journal in applied psychology in citation impact".
Disaster Mental Health Researcher (June, 2004).
Selected to be mentored as a disaster mental health researcher in a program funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Administered by Dartmouth Medical School and the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) to increase the quality and utility of disaster mental health research. Only four people who show aptitude for careers in disaster research will be selected for the program each year. I was selected as one of the four for the start up year of the program. I received a small grant for travel and professional development.
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) Ira Glasser Racial Justice Fellow 2004-2005 The fellowship is designed to address enduring racial inequalities, including social and economic inequalities caused by historical and current discrimination, the Fellows program provides support for individuals whose work will advance the ACLU's longstanding commitment to racial justice. I have been selected as one of three at-large (national) fellows to conduct research and scholarship that will be used to promote the organization's racial justice agenda. My work will focus on the use of psychological models such as racial identity to legal decision-making and court outcomes. The fellowship project is entitled "Integrating psychological models and research on race and trauma with legal policy and litigation".
Sage Publication Award -For editorial Leadership (2004, August).
An award Presented at the APA convention - For "his contribution to making The Counseling Psychologist the sixth mostly highly ranked journal in applied
Janet E. Helms Award For Mentoring and Scholarship in Psychology and Education Teachers College, Columbia University (2004, February). - Given in recognition for national leadership in scholarship on racism and racial identity theory and research. Also for mentorship and for the innovation design of the Racial-Cultural Counseling Laboratory, an experiential training model that encourages students and professionals to explore their cultural identities.
Distinguished Service Award Teachers College, Columbia University (2003, February) - Given in recognition of outstanding service to the Winter Roundtable on Cultural Psychology and Education
Multicultural Research Award, Given by the National Association of Multicultural Educators. (2001, November.) For recognition for outstanding and meaningful research contributions to education.
First Annual James M. Jones Career Achievement Award (Division 45), American Psychological Association. (2000, August).
Diplomate of the American Board of Psychology Specialties: Forensic Psychology (1999)
Fellow in the Division of Counseling Psychology (Division 17) of the American Psychological Association. (1997). Awarded by the American Psychological Association in recognition of outstanding and unusual contributions to the science and profession of psychology.
Fellow in the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (Division 45) of the American Psychological Association. (1997). Awarded by the American Psychological Association in recognition of outstanding and contributions to the advancement of ethnic minority issues in psychology.
Promising Minority Researcher. (1989). Selected by the National Institute of Mental Health, Technical Assistance Program.
Patricia Harris Fellow. (1983-1986). University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Minority Fellow. (1980-1981). Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Full academic scholarships. (1972-1977). School of General Studies, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Ira Glasser Racial Justice Fellow - American Civil Liberties Union, 2004-2005.
Disaster Mental Health Research Mentoring Program - National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder/Dartmouth University, Participant for 2004-2005.
Private Clinical Practice, 1991-1996. Individual, couples, and families.
Private Consulting Practice, 1996-present. Organizational and legal consulting.
Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology as of Fall, 1996 (formerly Department of Social, Organizational and Counseling Psychology), Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Department Chair, 1999-2001.
Counseling Program Director and Director of Training, 1999-2002.
Faculty Member; Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University, 1994-present.
Professor of Psychology and Education, 1998-present
Associate Professor of Psychology and Education, 1991-1998.
Assistant Professor of Psychology and Education, 1989-1991. Research and teaching at graduate and doctoral level.
Teachers College Winter Roundtable on Cross-Cultural Psychology and Education (formerly Counseling and Psychotherapy): Annual National Conference, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Conference Director, 1989- 2003.
Institute of Urban and Minority Education, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Member of advisory committee (1997-2000)
Florence R. Kluckhohn Center for the Study of Values, Bellingham, WA
Associate Scholar, 1993- 2002.
The center for the study of values is dedicated to promoting the Kluckhohn method for empirically investigating Cultural Values. The center is comprised of a group of International scholars from numerous disciplines who all use in various ways the Kluckhohn method. I was appointed an associate scholar for my work in developing the Intercultural Values Inventory, a measure designed to assess the value-orientations model developed by F. Kluckhohn and F. Strodtbeck.
Baruch College, City University of New York, New York, NY.
Staff Psychologist, January 1990-May 1991
Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.
Assistant Professor, 8/87-8/89.
Taught undergraduate and graduate courses in counseling psychology curriculum. Conducted research projects on career counseling, cross-cultural psychology, organizational psychology, and personality. Trained doctoral students in clinical/counseling practice. Taught graduate level basic psychotherapy, cross-cultural counseling, psychotherapy practicum and adult development; undergraduate courses introduction to personality theory, research, and applications & organizational behavior.
Counseling Center, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL.
Associate Counseling Psychologist.
Supervised doctoral students, conducted therapy groups and individual psychotherapy.
Counseling Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Psychology Intern, (APA approved) 7/86-6/87.
Conducted individual psychotherapy, ran structured theme oriented and therapy groups, engaged in campus and resident life consultation, and supervised practicum students. Administered psychodiagnostic testing-weekly rotation-learning assistance service, collaborated on applied research project for administrative purposes. Conducted mini-presentations in actual classrooms on theme oriented topics (e.g., time management). Participated in intern and senior staff case conferences and in intern clinical seminar as well as full staff educational-vocational counseling seminar.
Counseling Center, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Research Assistant, 1983-1986.
Collected data, wrote research proposals and reports. Also worked for Division of Student Affairs on Maryland Longitudinal Study, a five-year study of over 700 freshmen who entered the University of Maryland in the fall of 1980. Assisted in content analyses and coding of interview data.
Contracted to perform intensive therapy for clients on waiting list, worked with five clients twice weekly who presented personal and vocational issues.
George Mason University, Minority Student Service, Fairfax, VA.
Counselor, Summer, 1985.
Conducted six-week Transition Program for incoming Black students. Focused on studentship skills, interpersonal communication and assertiveness training.
Department of Psychology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
Teaching Assistant, 1981-1984.
Lectured on Counseling Theory and Psychopathology; Sexual dysfunction and Substance abuse. Assisted professors with grading papers and exams. Administered exams, supervised undergraduate TA's and assisted students in development of counseling skills. Responsible for 150 students (five discussion sections).
Department of Psychology, La Guardia Community College, Queens, NY.
Adjunct Instructor, January-May 1981.
Taught course on Black Psychology.
Malcolm-King College Extension, New York, NY.
Instructor, January-May, 1981.
Taught course in General Psychology.
Federation Employment and Guidance Services/City of New York Crisis Intervention Services, New York, NY.
Psychiatric Rehabilitation Counselor, 1979-1981.
Trained as New York State Community Support System Case Manager. Provided direct outreach to deinstitutionalized psychiatric patients and functionally disabled clients. Provided supportive psychotherapy, general social work, and medical follow-up. Responsible for crisis intervention with 40+ caseload of single-room occupancy hotel population.
Mini-Institute City College, New York, NY.
Designed, developed, and assisted in the administration of the Young Adults Work Experience Training Program. Primary responsibility: vocational and personal counseling.
North Central Opportunities Industrialization Center, Fairmont, WV.
Oriented individual trainees to OIC program and interpreted program objectives. Provided individual and group counseling.
Director of Counseling, 2/78-9/79.
Responsible for counseling program; executed policies outlined by administration; administered and evaluated educational tests; maintained contact with related community agencies.
Morningside Area Alliance Career Planning and Counseling Center and Youth Service, New York, NY.
Program Director and Founder, 1974-1977.
Organized and planned activities for educational/vocational counseling program which served the Alliance Youth program and surrounding community.
Worked in consultation with program directors to maintain the career center, develop grant proposals, and troubleshoot agency problems.
Harlem Youth Federation, New York City.
Executive Director, April-August, 1977.
Planned, organized, and directed comprehensive youth development program in central Harlem.
American Psychological Association, (APA)
American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD)
American Counseling Personnel Association (ACPA)
Association for Multicultural Counseling and Development (AMCD)
The National Career Development Association (NCDA)
Association of Black Psychologists (ABPsi)
The Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues
American Education Research Association (AERA)
American Orthopsychiatric Association (Ortho)
American College of Forensic Examiners (ACFE)National Association of Multicultural Educators (NAME)
Carter, R. T. (November, 2005). Race-based Traumatic Stress Injury: Assessment and recognition. Keynote Address presented at the HBCU Counseling Center, Third Annual Conference on the Mental Health of Black College Students, Baltimore, MD.
Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Racial Identity in Psychotherapy Process and Outcome: Case Applications. The First Annual Evelyn Lee Visiting Scholar on Cultural Competence and Diversity: Case Conference, University of California San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry, Division of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, CA.
Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Race and Racial identity in Psychotherapy: Practical Applications. The First Annual Evelyn Lee Visiting Scholar on Cultural Competence and Diversity: Keynote Lecture, University of California San Francisco, Department of Psychiatry Grand Rounds, Langley Porter Psychiatric Institute, San Francisco, CA.
Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Racial Cultural Factors and Aspects of Disasters as Predictors of Racial Minorities Mental Health. Presented at the Research and Education Disaster Mental Health Conference, Dartmouth Medical School and the National Center for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Boston, MA.
Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). Recognizing and Assessing Race-Based Traumatic Stress Injury. Invited Workshop given at the Diversity Challenge Conference, making ace and Culture Work in the World of Work, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA.
Carter, R. T. (October, 2005). An Introduction to Racial Identity Theory: Exploring a New Approach to Service Provision. A keynote address delivered at the National Black and Minority Health Network Conference: Turning the Tide, Manchester England.
Carter, R. T. (August, 2005). How to Get Published in The Counseling Psychologist. The American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C.
Carter, R. T. (April, 2005). Publishing in The Counseling Psychologist. Invited Presentation Panel of Journal Editors. The American Counseling Association, Atlanta, GA.
Carter, R. T. (February, 2004)Does Racism Cause Psychological and Emotional Injury. Invited Helms Award lecture given at the Teachers College, Winter Roundtable Conference on Cultural Psychology and Education, New York, NY.
Carter, R.T. (March, 2004). How to get published in The Counseling Psychologist Invited Presentation. the American Counseling Association. Kansas City, Mo
Carter, R. T. (April, 2004). More than a pound of cure, an ounce of prevention -
Core constructs for reducing mental health disparities Invited Presentation. Yale University Consultation Center Conference On Equity, Access and Outcome:
The Role of Prevention Science In Reducing Heath Disparities, New Haven, CT.
Carter, R. T. (May, 2004)Competent Crisis Response: Considering Culture and Race. Invited Training Session. University of Connecticut s Center for Trauma Response, Recovery and Preparedness and the State Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services/ Department of Children and families, Farmington, CT.
Carter, R. T. (Chair and Presenter). (August, 2004). Deconstructing racial discrimination: The intersection of psychology and the law Symposium with J. Forsyth, S. Mazzula, & B. Williams, conducted at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Carter, R.T. (August, 2004). How to get published in The Counseling Psychologist Presentation at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Carter, R. T. (August, 2004). The benefits and costs of teaching about race and culture. Symposium on confronting resistance and maintaining resilience in multicultural teaching, research and practice - by division 17 section on Ethnic and Racial Diversity) with J. Trimble and M. Vasquez. Invited presentation at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Carter, R. T. (August, 2004). Developing cultural competency in mental health organizations and programs. Panel chaired by Arthur Evans; Toward an empirical framework for cultural competence - by division 18, presentation at the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, Hawaii.